Work, Life and Leisure : Cities in the Contemporary World Questions and Answers CBSE Class 10 Board Exam

1 Mark Question

Question 1. Why did Charles Booth, a Liverpool ship owner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in the east end of London in 1887 ?

Answer : Charles Booth was a ship-owner in Liverpool who conducted the first social survey of the low skilled workers in the east end of London in the year 1887. This survey revealed that there were one million poor people with life expectancy of 29 years only. They had to die in workhouse or hospital or lunatic asylum. Booth suggested for the rebuilding of at least 40,000 rooms for these poor Londoners.

3 Marks Questions

Question 2. Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century. 

Answer :  The three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century were:

(a) They tried decongestion of localities, reduce pollution, and landscape the city.

(b) The open spaces were greened up.

(c) Large blocks of apartments were built and rent control was introduced.

(d) Green belts were made around the city London. (Any three)

Question 3. How did people entertain themselves in the chawls of Bombay? 

Answer : The following were the ways through which the people entertained themselves in the chawls of Bombay:

(a) There were liquor shops and akharas in the empty spaces.

(b) The streets were used for leisure activities by the magicians,monkey players, acrobats, Kadaklakshami.

(c) To exchange news about jobs, strikes, riots and demonstrations.

Question  4. Explain the concept of the ‘Garden city’. Who developed this system in London?

Answer : According to Ebenezer Howard, the garden city would be a pleasant space full of greenery with beautiful views where people could both live and work. It was basically to decongest the city of London. A million houses were built, mostly the single family cottages, by the local authorities of the British state.

The principle of the garden city was the idea developed by Ebenezer Howard, an architect and planner.

Question 5. ‘The chawls of Bombay were a small cosmopolitan community in themselves’. Explain the statement. 

Answer : Chawls were built in the native part of the town and had multi-storeyed structures built by the private landowners for the migrants, to earn easy money.

These chawls were divided into small oneroom tenements without private toilets. According to the 1901 census, about 80% people lived in the one-room tenements with 4 to 5 people.

Due to the high rent, they shared the room with their relatives or the caste fellows. The Chawl people used the streets and the neighbourhood for cooking, washing and sleeping at night as the rooms were small in size.

There were liquor shops and akharas in the empty spaces and the streets were used for leisure activities by the magicians, monkey players, acrobats, Kadaklakshami and also to exchange news about jobs, strikes, riots and demonstrations.

There were heads in the chawls. The jobbers sometimes helped in settling disputes, supplied food, brought information about the political developments and arranged informal loans to these Chawl people. It was difficult for the depressed classes to get room in the chawls and had to live in shelters.

Question 6. Examine the condition of people living in the chawls of Bombay.

Answer : Chawls were built in the native part of the town and had multi-storeyed structures built by the private landowners for the migrants, to earn easy money. These chawls were divided into small one room tenements without private toilets. Due to the high rent, they shared the room with their relatives or the caste fellows. Due to the filthy gutters, buffalo stables and the toilet outside, the people were not able to open their windows even in the high humidity weather.

Due to the water scarcity, the Chawl people quarreled every morning for their turn at the water tap but they kept their houses quite clean. The Chawl people used the streets and the neighbourhood for cooking, washing and sleeping at night as the rooms were small in size.

Question 7. Who were Philanthropists? Explain any two steps taken to control crime in London in the 1870s. 

Answer : They were the social workers in London. Crime activities increased with the growth of London. There was problem of law and order, public morality and hardworking labour force.

The people made a living from crime and therefore criminals were counted, their activities and ways of life were watched and investigated.

Henry Mayhew made a long list of the criminals but many of them were the poor people who made their living by stealing lead from the roofs, food from the shops or lump of coals.

Actions taken to discipline the population involved high penalties for crime, and jobs were offered to the deserving poor.

Question 8. When and why was the Rent Act passed in Bombay during the British days? What was its outcome? 

Answer :  A Rent Act was passed in the year 1918 in Bombay during the British days. It was passed for keeping the room rents reasonable.

As an outcome of this Rent Act in Bombay the landlords withdrew their houses from the market which caused severe housing crisis in Bombay.

Question 9. Explain how the underground railway was able to solve transport problems as well as housing crisis in London in the nineteenth century? [CBSE 2015]

OR

Explain how the underground railways was able to solve transport problems as well as housing crisis in London in the late nineteenth century? 

Answer : The housing crisis in London was partially solved by the underground railway. It carried large number of people to and from the city.

On 10 January 1863, the first section of underground railway was opened in London between Paddington and Farrington Street.

On the very first day it carried ten thousand passengers. The trains were running at an interval of every 10 minutes. Initially the people were afraid to travel in the underground railways but by 1880 it carried 40 million passengers every year. Now due to the better suburbs and the grand success of the underground railway resulted in dispersion of large number of people from the city.

Question 10. State any three characteristics of the ancient cities. 

Answer : The three characteristics of the ancient cities are:

(a) The earlier towns and cities developed along the river valleys. For example Ur, Nippur and Mohenjo-Daro etc. These were larger in terms of area and population.

(b) These cities were the centres of politics, administration, trade and industries with various social groups.

Question 11. Explain any three features of chawls of Bombay. 

Answer : The three features of Chawls of Bombay are:

(a) Chawls were built in the native part of the town and had multi-storeyed structures built by the private landowners for the migrants to earn easy money.

(b) These chawls were divided into small oneroom tenements without private toilets.

(c) The Chawl people used the streets and the neighbourhood for cooking, washing and sleeping at night as the rooms were small in size.

Question 12. Describe various steps which were taken to clean up London. 

Answer : The various steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century were:

(a) They tried decongestion of localities, reduce pollution, and landscape the city.

(b) The open spaces were greened up.

(c) Large blocks of apartments were built and rent control was introduced.

(d) Green belts were made around the city London.

Question 13. Ties between members of household loosened in Britain in the era of industrialisation. Explain the statement. 

Answer :  During the 18th century, the family was considered as a unit of production, consumption and political decision making but due to the emergence of the industrial city life the function and the shape of the family changed completely.

The institution o f marriage broke down, ties between the family members weakened and the women were facing isolation in the family. Therefore there was need to save and reconstruct these social changes by pushing the women into home.

Question 14. How was the family life transformed in the industrial city during the 18th century? 

Answer : During the 18th century, the family was considered as a unit of production, consumption and political decision making but due to the emergence of the industrial city life the function and the shape of the family changed completely.

The institution of marriage broke down, ties between the family members weakened and the women were facing isolation in the family. Therefore there was need to save and reconstruct these social changes by pushing the women into home.

The spirit of individualism developed and the collective values declined among the men and women and also raised the problem of mass leisure on Sunday or other holidays.

Women lost their jobs in the industries and were pushed back into the domestic sphere whereas the presence of men increased in the public spaces. The men were mobilized in the political movements like the Chartism movement and the Ten-hour movement.

Question 15. Why was the underground rail criticized in London? Explain the reasons. 

Answer : Initially the people were afraid to travel in the underground railways. Some people were thinking that these underground railways must be stopped soon as they were not good for the health. It was because the people were using smoking pipes, there was heat, coal dust and foul smell from the gas lamps which made the journey vulnerable in these trains.

Charles Dickens wrote about the massive destruction in the process of construction of the underground railways in his book ‘Dombey and Son’ which was published in the year 1848.

He explained that the houses and the streets were broken down, deep pits and trenches were dug, there was huge heaps of earth and clay lying everywhere which contributed a lot to the mess and unhealthiness of the city London.

The making of the underground railway displaced large number of people. For example, approx. 900 houses had to be destroyed for two miles of railway.

Question 16. “The congestion in the nineteenth century industrial city led to a yearning for clean country air.” Explain how the wish of the people got fulfilled. 

Answer :  The development of any city takes place after damaging or transforming the nature and ecology of that place. It is done to meet the demand for space for various reasons. The cities always produces huge quantity of wastes that causes different types of pollution like air, water, noise etc.

In the earlier cities, coal was used widely in the homes and the factories which resulted into grey sky, black vegetation, black fog, bad tempers, dirty clothes and smoke related diseases.

Initially, people campaigned for the clean air and wanted to control it through legislation but the factory owners were not willing to spend more on technologies. The various attempts made to clean up London were – decongestion of localities, the open spaces were greened up, reduce pollution, landscape the city, large blocks of apartments were built, rent control was introduced and green belts were made around the city London.

The principle of the garden city was the idea developed by Ebenezer Howard, an architect and planner.

According to him the garden city would be a pleasant space full of greenery with beautiful views where people could both live and work.

A million houses were built, mostly the single family cottages, by the local authorities of the British state.

The Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 proved a failure as the smoke monitoring was not easy and also the factory owners did only small adjustments to their machinery.

Question 17. How did the development or expansion of Bombay differ from that of London? Give any three points of difference. 

Answer : In the 19th century, London was the largest city in the world and also the imperial Centre whereas in the Indian subcontinent Bombay was one of the most modern city.

The city of Bombay was overcrowded. This can be justified with the fact that Londoner had an average space of 155 sq. yards whereas Bombay people had 9.5 sq. yards. London had 8 persons per house whereas Bombay had 20 persons per house.

The Bombay Fort area was divided into the native town and the Europeans. The Indians lived in the native town area which was the industrial area whereas the white people lived in the European suburb. Due to the rapid and unplanned expansion of the Bombay city, there was problem of housing and water.

The Europeans and the other elite people lived in the large bungalows whereas majority of the working class people lived in the chawls which was thickly populated.

Question 18. Who were philanthropists? Explain any two steps taken to control crime in London in the 1870s. 

Answer :  They were the social workers in London. Crime activities increased with the growth of London. There was problem of law and order, public morality and hardworking labour force.

The people made a living from crime and therefore criminals were counted, their activities and ways of life were watched and investigated.

Henry Mayhew made a long list of the criminals but many of them were the poor people who made their living by stealing lead from the roofs, food from the shops or lump of coals.

Actions taken to discipline the populationhigh penalties for crime and jobs were offered to the deserving poor.

Question 19. Explain any three problems faced by people who migrated to Bombay in the mid-nineteenth century. 

Answer : The three problems faced by people who migrated to Bombay in the mid-nineteenth century were:

(a) The city Bombay was over crowded. Due to the rapid and unplanned expansion of the Bombay city there was problem of housing and water.

(b) Chawls were divided into small one-room tenements without private toilets. Due to the high rent they shared the room with their relatives or the caste fellows.

(c) Due to the filthy gutters, buffalo stables and the toilet outside, the people were not able to open their windows even in the high humidity weather.

(d) Due to the water scarcity the Chawl people quarreled every morning for their turn at the water tap but they kept their houses quite clean.

(e) The Chawl people used the streets and the neighbourhood for cooking, washing and sleeping at night as the rooms were small in size. It was difficult for the depressed classes to get room in the chawls and had to live in shelters. (Any three)

Question 20. Why was the land reclamation to Bombay necessary?Mentionany two land reclamation projects taken up in Bombay.

Answer :  The various reasons that made land reclamation necessary in Bombay were:

(a) The city of Bombay was over crowded. This can be justified with the fact that a Londoner had an average space of 155 sq. yards whereas Bombay people had 9.5 sq. yards. London had 8 persons per house whereas Bombay had 20 persons per house.

(b) Due to the rapid and unplanned expansion of the Bombay city there was problem of housing and water.

(c) Majority of the working class people lived in the chawls which was thickly populated. Due to the high rent they shared the room with their relatives or the caste fellows.

(d) The plague epidemic resulted in the town planning of Bombay. The massive reclamation projects helped in the development of the city Bombay.

(e) In the year 1784, the Bombay reclamation project was started which was to join the 7 islands of Bombay.

(f) In the year 1864,the Back Bay Reclamation Company got the right to reclaim the western foreshore. It was basically a project of reclamation from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of Colaba.

Question 21. What was the tradition of London season? Explain different forms of entertainment which came up in 19th century England to provide leisure activities for the people.

Answer : There was a tradition of annual London season among the rich Britishers with several cultural events like the opera, the theatre and the classical music.

The industrial working classes met in pubs, exchanged news and organized political actions.

Different types of entertainment provisions were made for the common people at large scale such as libraries, art galleries and museums.

This was done to create a sense of history and pride among the Britishers. In the year 1810, the entry was made free in the museums which tremendously increased the number of visitors every year.

Lower class people were entertained in the music hall whereas cinema became popular for the mixed audiences. Gradually the number of industrial workers going to the seaside to spend their holidays for getting the benefits of the sun and the bracing winds, increased.

5 Marks Questions

Question 22. Explain any five social changes that took place in the family life in the 18th century in London.

Answer : The five social changes that took place in the family life in the 18th century in London were as follows:

(a) During the 18th century, the family was considered as a unit of production, consumption and political decision making but due to the emergence of the industrial city life the function and the shape of the family changed completely.

(b) The institution of marriage broke down.

(c) T i es between the family members weakened.

(d) The women were facing isolation in the family.

(e) The spirit of individualism developed and the collective values declined among the men and women and also raised the problem of mass leisure on Sunday or other holidays.

(f) Women lost their jobs in the industries and were pushed back into the domestic sphere whereas the presence of men increased in the public spaces.

Question 23. Describe the features of the big modern city of Calcutta as viewed by the Gods in the novel written by Durgacharan Roy. 

Answer :  ‘Debganer Martye Aagaman’ a novel, written by Durgacharan Ray in the year 1880. According to this novel the Brahma visited the earth (Calcutta) by train with some other gods. They were so impressed that they decided to build a museum and a high court in heaven.

The features of the big modern city of Calcutta as viewed by the Gods in the novel written by Durgacharan Roy were:

(a) The city had better means of transport like the railways and the ships.

(b) The gods were happy with the trade, commerce, wealth, property, education and job opportunities.

(c) But were unhappy with the cheats, thieves, poverty.

(d) There was discrimination on the basis of caste, religion and gender.

(e) There was poor housing and other basic facilities.

Question 24. State the history of air pollution in Calcutta during the nineteenth century. 

Answer : Calcutta was built on marshy land which resulted in fog during the winter and together with the factory smoke it generated black smog.

Dependence of huge population on the dung and wood for fuel also caused high level of pollution but the main pollutants were the industries and the steam engines run on coal.

In the year 1863, smoke nuisance legislation was implemented in Calcutta and hence it became the first city in India to have such legislation.

Question 25. Explain the changes in the work available to women in London during the 19th and  20th century.

Answer : (a) According to the 1861 Census of London large number of domestic servants were the migrant women.

(b) They lost their industrial jobs due to the technological changes.

(c) To increase the family income women used their homes as lodges.

(d) They did work like tailoring, washing or match box making.

(e) But again they withdrew from such domestic services when they got job opportunities in wartime industries and offices.

Question 26. How was the condition of the urban family transformed by the 20th century?

Answer : During the 18th century, the family was considered as a unit of production, consumption and political decision making but due to the emergence of the industrial city life the function and the shape of the family changed completely.

The institution of marriage broke down, ties between the family members weakened and the women were facing isolation in the family. Therefore there was need to save and reconstruct these social changes by pushing the women into home.

The spirit of individualism developed and the collective values declined among the men and women and also raised the problem of mass leisure on Sunday or other holidays.

Women lost their jobs in the industries and were pushed back into the domestic sphere whereas the presence of men increased in the public spaces. The men were mobilized in the political movements like the Chartism movement and the Ten-hour movement.

Question 27. How did the city development occur at the cost of ecology and environment? 

Answer : The development of any city takes place after damaging or transforming the nature and ecology of that place. It is done to meet the demand for space for various reasons. The cities always produces huge quantity of wastes that causes different types of pollution like air, water, noise etc.

In the earlier cities, coal was used widely in the homes and the factories which resulted into grey sky, black vegetation, black fog, bad tempers, dirty clothes and smoke related diseases.

Initially people campaigned for the clean air and wanted to control it through legislation but the factory owners were not willing to spend more on technologies.

The Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 proved a failure as the smoke monitoring was not easy and also the factory owners did only small adjustments to their machinery.

Calcutta was built on marshy land which resulted in fog during the winter and together with the factory smoke it generated black smog.

Dependence of huge population on the dung and wood for fuel also caused high level of pollution but the main pollutants were the industries and the steam engines run on coal.

In the year 1863, smoke nuisance legislation was implemented in Calcutta and hence it became the first city in India to have such legislation.

Question 28. Describe in brief the development of Bombay as the prime city of India.

Answer : Bombay was controlled by the Portuguese in the 17th century. It was a group of 7 islands whose control was shifted to the British in the year 1661 when Charles II, the king of Britain got married to the princess of Portugual.

Now the company shifted its base from Surat to Bombay from which cotton textiles were exported earlier but later on it became important administrative and industrial centre along with the exporter of raw materials like cotton and opium. The city Bombay expanded when it became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in the year 1819.

Due to the establishment of textile mills different communities like traders, bankers, artisans, shopkeepers etc. migrated to Bombay.

In the year 1854, the first cotton textile mill was set up in Bombay which increased to 85 by the year 1921.

The original inhabitants of Bombay were only 1/4th of the total population and the majority of the migrated people were from the Ratnagiri district.

Bombay had the advantage of maritime trade and railways which helped in large scale migration to the city.