Water Resources

1 Mark Questions

Q1. In which part of the country, wells are the most important means of irrigation?

Answer: In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar wells are the most important means of irrigation.

Q2. Name any two states, in which tank irrigation is given more importance.

Answer: Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are two states, where tank irrigation is significant.

Q3. State two advantage(s) of tank irrigation.

Answer: Two advantages of tank irrigation are as follows:

(i) The tank water is used for domestic purpose in villages.

(ii) Tank irrigation is cheaper than other sources of irrigation.

Q4. Irrigation through groundwater is still popular despite big river projects, why?

Answer: Groundwater irrigation is popular because of the abundance of water availability.

2 Marks Questions

Q5. State two reasons why tank irrigation is popular in South India

Answer: Tank irrigation is popular in South India due to following reason:

(i) Most of the area of peninsular India is uneven with many natural depressions where the tanks are/ can be built.

(ii) The Deccan plateau consists of underlying hard rocks which are impervious or non-porous, thus not allowing percolation of water.

Q6. Mention two advantages that surface wells have, over inundation canals.

Answer: The two advantages that surface wells have over inundation canals are as follows:

(i) They are very cheap to construct and maintain, hence can be undertaken by individuals.

(ii) It can be used according to one’s requirement.

Q7. Name two states, in which tube wells are extensively used. Give a reason to explain its importance as a source of irrigation.

Answer: In Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, the tube wells are extensively used because agriculture is an important activity here and rocks are soft to bore.

Q8. Give two main reasons why water scarcity occurs in India

Answer: Water scarcity occurs in India due to the following reasons:

(i) Monsoons are seasonal in nature.

(ii) Transformation of society into urban and industrial has increased the requirement of water.

Q9. Mention two advantages of rainwater harvesting.

Answer: The two advantages of rainwater harvesting are as follows:

(i) It prevents water from being wasted.

(ii) It raises the groundwater table.

Q10. Why are inundation canals being converted to perennial canals? Give two reasons.

Answer: Inundation canals are being converted to perennial canals because

(i) They are Dependant on rains for supply of water and thus cannot supply water when desired.

(ii) Only low land areas can be irrigated with inundation canals.

Q11. Name two states, in which well irrigation is widely used. Mention one advantage of well irrigation in India.

Answer: Well irrigation is widely used in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Its advantage is that it is simple and the cheapest source of irrigation.

Q12. Mention two disadvantages of tank irrigation.

Answer: Two disadvantages of tank irrigation are as follows:

(i) Tanks cover large areas of land which could be used for agriculture.

(ii) Since, tanks are shallow, large amount of water is wasted through evaporation.

Q13. How are tube wells beneficial to farmers in North India?

Answer: Tube wells are beneficial because

(i) These can irrigate a larger area and the water is not polluted.

(ii) They are deep and thus useful in the dry period, when other wells dry up.

Q14. State four disadvantage of tank irrigation in South India.

Answer: Disadvantage of tank irrigation in South India are as follows:

(i) Tanks occupy large areas of land which could be used for agriculture.

(ii) They dry up in summer and are not of much use.

(iii) A lot of water evaporates as they are very shallow.

(iv) It is difficult to carry water to the fields due to the rocky terrain.

Q15. What are the disadvantages of well irrigation?

Answer: The disadvantages of well irrigation are as follows:

(i) In summer the wells dry up.

(ii) If the groundwater is brackish, then well irrigation is not possible.

Q16. State two ways, in which canal irrigation system can be improved in India

Answer: Two ways to improve the canal irrigation system are as follows:

(i) There should be hard rocks or an impervious layer below, so that water does not seep into the ground from the bottom of the canal.

(ii) There should be a means of filling up the canal with water on a regular basis.

Q17. State one advantage and one disadvantage of large dam.

Answer: One advantage of large dams is that they provide water for irrigation. One disadvantage of large dams is that they prevent the natural flow of river water, causing excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir created by the dam.

Q18. Irrigation is indispensable for an agricultural country like India. Give two reasons to explain why artificial irrigation is essential

Answer: two reasons for artificial irrigation being essential for India are

(i) Unequal distribution of rain over land.

(ii) Seasonal monsoon type of climate.

3 Marks Questions

Q19. Give one geographical reason for each of the following statements

(i) Irrigation is necessary despite the monsoon.

(ii) The drip method of irrigation is the best among all modern methods of irrigation.

(iii) Canal irrigation leads to the un-productivity of grounds around it.

Answer:

(i) There is spatio-temporal variations in monsoons i.e. rainfall by monsoon is not same at every place and it fluctuates every year. So, irrigation is necessary.

(ii) Drip method of irrigation prevents water loss through evaporation and directly reaches the roots of plants, thus conserving water.

(iii) The farm land around a canal faces the problem of water logging in case of unlined canals as water soaks into the adjoining areas turning them into swamps them into swamps and making them unproductive.

Q20. Give three reasons for conservations of water resources.

Answer: Water resources should be conserved for the following reasons:

(i) There is water scarcity due to a large and growing population

(ii) There is uneven distribution of rainfall.

(iii) To meet the demands of water requirement in dry season.

Q21. Briefly explain two reasons for perennial canals being a popular form of irrigation in the Northern states.

Answer: Perennial canals are popular form of irrigation in the Northern states because of the following reasons:

(i) Rivers of Northern states are perennial as they are snow-fed.

(ii) Land is flat and soft, allowing canal construction easily.

Q22. Mention two objectives of rainwater harvesting.

Answer: Two objectives of rainwater harvesting are as follows:

(i) Recharging the groundwater and raising its level.

(ii) Preventing the rainwater from being wasted, as there is water scarcity.

Q23. Name two methods of water harvesting in India.

Answer: Two methods of water harvesting in India are

(i) Rooftop harvesting

(ii) Kuls or Guls.

Q24. Name two states, where perennial canals are widely used.

Answer: In Punjab and Haryana, perennial canals are widely used.

Q25. Where are tanks most widely used in India and why?

Answer: Tanks are most widely used in South-India, particularly in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Tank irrigation is popular in South India due to following reasons:

(i) Most of the area of peninsular India is uneven with many natural depressions where the tanks are/can be built.

(ii) The Deccan plateau consists of underlying hard rocks which are impervious or non-porous, thus not allowing percolation of water.

Q26. Give two Advantages and one Disadvantages that tube wells have over surface wells.

Answer:

Advantages:

(i) Tube well can irrigate large areas.

(ii) They do not dry up during summers.

Disadvantages:

(i) They cause large scale depletion of the level of groundwater.

Q27. Give three reasons to justify the need to conserve water.

Answer: Water resources should be conserved for the following reasons:

(i) There is water scarcity due to a large and growing population

(ii) There is uneven distribution of rainfall.

(iii) To meet the demands of water requirement in dry season.

Q28. Mention any three water harvesting system practiced in India.

Answer: Water harvesting system practiced in India are as follows:

(i) Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting: These are common in semi-arid and arid regions of India especially in Rajasthan, where water is stored in an underground tank or tankas.

(ii) Kuls: In hill and mountainous regions people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’. It is common in Western Himalayas and largely used for irrigation.

(iii) Johads and Khadins: In arid and semi-arid regions agricultural fields were converted into rain feed storage structures that allowed the water to stain and moisten the soil. This is known as Khadins in Jaisalmair and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.

Q29. Irrigation in India faces many problems. Name any two.

Answer: The two problems of irrigation in India are as follows:

(i) Irrigation by canals, the best and most economical is not possible in South India because of the rocky and uneven terrain.

(ii) Irrigation infrastructure is lacking in large parts of India, Which are totally dependent on the monsoon rains.