1 Mark Questions
Question 1. Name any one river valley project which has significantly contributed to the loss of forests.
Answer : Sardar Sarovar Dam.
Question 2. Write the major source of freshwater in India?
Answer : Groundwater.
Question 3. How much percent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as fresh water?
Answer : 25 percent.
Question 4. What percentage of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans?
Answer : 96.5 percent.
Question 5. What are the causes of water scarcity?
Answer : Rapid growth of population, uneven distribution of water resources and increase in demand of water.
Question 6. Which largest artificial lake was built in 11th century?
Answer : Bhopal lake.
Question 7. On which river has the Hirakud Dam been constructed?
Answer : River Mahanadi.
Question 8. On which river Bhakhra Nangal Dam has been constructed?
Answer : River Satluj.
Question 9. Who proclaimed dams as the temples of modern India?
Answer : Jawaharlal Nehru.
Question 10. Which river is known as the ‘River of Sorrow’?
Answer : Damodar river.
Question 11. Name two social movements which were against the multipurpose projects.
Answer : Narmada Bachao Andolan and Tehri Dam Andolan.
Question 12. The Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is built on which river?
Answer : Krishna.
Question 13. On which river the Salal Dam is built?
Answer : Chenab.
Question 14. In which regions the release of water from dams during heavy rains aggravated the food situation in 2006?
Answer : Maharashtra and Gujarats
Question 15. Which water is recharged by roof-top rainwater harvesting technique?
Answer : Ground water.
Question 16. In which region, people built ‘Guls’ or ‘Kuls’ for irrigation?
Answer : Western Himalayas.
Question 17. Mention one state where canal irrigation has developed.
Answer : Nagaland.
Question 18. In which state Bamboo Drip Irrigation is prevalent?
Answer : Meghalaya.
Question 19. On which river is the Nagarjunsagar dam built?
Answer : The Nagarjunsagar Dam is built on the Krishna.
Question 20. Whatis the traditional system of rainwater harvesting?
Answer : The traditional system of rainwater harvesting is to build underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. This system is mainly practised in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan.
Question 21. Name the river on which Sardar Sarovar dam is built.
Answer : Sardar Sarovar dam is built on the Narmada.
Question 22. Name the river on which Nagarjunasagar dam is constructed.
Answer : The Nagarjunsagar Dam is built on the Krishna.
Question 23. Name the river on which Mettur dam has been built.
Answer : Mettur dam has been built on the Kaveri.
Question 24. What was the main purpose of launching multi-purpose projects in India after independence?
Answer : The main purpose of launching multipurpose projects after independence was that they would integrate development of agriculture with rapid industrialization.
Question 25. Name two techniques of rooftop rainwater harvesting.
Answer : (a) Construction of tanks so as to store the rainwater
(b) Collection of excess rainwater in the dugwell
Question 26. What is the need of rainwater harvesting?
Answer : Rainwater harvesting is needed to provide it for agriculture, collect drinking water, irrigate the fields and to moisten the soil.
3 Marks Question
Question 27. Mention any four main objectives of multi -purpose river valley projects. Name any two Multipurpose Projects of India.
What is a multipurpose river valley project? Mention any four objectives of it.
Answer : A project where many uses o f the impounded water are integrated with one another is known as multipurpose project. It is built for irrigation, power generation, water supply, flood control, recreation, etc.
Question 28. Water scarcity in most cases is caused by over exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups. Explain the meaning of the statement with the help of examples .
Answer : We can understand the meaning of the above statement through these examples:
(i) After a heavy downpour, a boy collects drinking water in Kolkata.
(ii) A Kashmiri earthquake survivor carries water in the snow in a devastated village.
(iii) A Rajasthani woman balances her matka and travels large distances to collect water.
Question 29. Explain the working of underground tanks as a part of roof top rainwater harvesting system practised in Rajasthan.
How were the underground tanks beneficial to the people of Rajasthan? Explain.
Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semiarid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.
Answer : (i) In semi-arid and arid regions o f Rajasthan almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks for storing drinking water. They are extremely reliable source of drinking water when other sources are dried up. This is considered the purest form of natural water.
(ii) The tanks can be as large as big rooms.
(iii) The tanks were part of the well developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system.
(iv) The tanks were built inside the main house or the courtyard giving cooling effect to the rooms in the summer.
(v) Those tanks were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe.
(vi) Rain falling on these rooftops would travel down the pipe and stored in these underground tanks.
(vii) Usually first: rain water is not collected to clean the rooftop and the pipe. (Any three)
Question 30. Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim dams as the ‘temples of modern India’? Explain any three reasons.
Answer : Jawaharlal Nehru proclaimed the dams as the “temples of modern India” because
(i) They eliminate or reduce flooding.
(ii) Provide water for agriculture.
(iii) Provide water for human and industrial consumption.
(iv) Provide hydroelectricity for houses and industries. (Any three)
Question 31. How have intensive industrialization and urbanization posed a great pressure on existing freshwater resources in India. Explain.
How does urbanization and urban lifestyle lead to over exploitation of water resources? Explain.
How have intensive industrialization and urbanization posed a great pressure on existing freshwater resources in India? Explain.
Answer : Post independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation.
(i) Arrival of MNC’s: Apart from fresh water they require electricity which comes from hydroelectric power.
(ii) Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban life styles have not only added to water and energy requirements, but have further aggravated the problem.
(iii) Large-scale migration from rural to urban areas is causing over exploitation of water resources.
Question 32. Describe any three traditional methods of rainwater harvesting adopted in different parts of India.
”Rainwater harvesting system is viable alternative both socially, economically and environmentally”. Support the statement with three examples.
Describe any three different rainwater harvesting systems practised in India.
Answer : (i) In hilly and mountainous regions, people build diversion channels like ‘gul’ or ‘kul’ in Western Himalaya for agriculture.
(ii) Roof-top rainwater harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water particularly in Rajasthan.
(iii) In West Bengal, people develop inundation channels to irrigate their fields.
(iv) In semi-arid regions agricultural fields are converted into rainfed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moist the soil (Any three)
Question 33. List any three advantages and three disadvantages of multipurpose river project.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of multipurpose river project.
(i) These are the main source of power generation.
(ii) They provide us neat, pollution free and cheapest energy which is the backbone of industry and agriculture.
(iii) These projects control the floods because water can be stored in them. These projects have converted many, ‘rivers of sorrows’ into ‘rivers of boon’.
(iv) These projects are the main source of irrigation and also help in conserving soil.
(i) Due to the construction of dams, there are no adequate floods in the river. Because of this, the soil of the downstream region does not get nutrient rich silt.
(ii) Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate for spawning, i.e., to produce eggs.
(iii) It resulted in displacement of local communities. The local people often have to give up their land and livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater need of the nation.
Question 34. What is Bamboo Drip Irrigation? Mention any two features of it.
Answer : (i) Bamboo Drip Irrigation system is a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipe and transporting water from higher to lower regions through gravity.
(a) 18-20 liters of water enters the bamboo pipe system, get transported over hundreds of meters and finally reduces to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant.
(b) The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.
Question 35. Highlight any three hydraulic structures as part of water management programmes initiated in ancient India along with the period when they were built.
Answer : Sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs or lakes, embankments and canals for irrigation were built in various regions of the country.
(i) A sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of river Ganga was built at Sringaverapura near Allahabad in the 15th century BC.
(ii) Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh, Bennur in Karnataka, Kolhapur in Maharashtra and Kalinga in Odisha have evidences of irrigation structures.
(iii) In the 11th century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
(iv) The tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish in the 14th century to supply water to the Siri Fort Area.
Question 36. Why is groundwater a highly overused resource?
Answer : Groundwater is a highly overused resource because of the following reasons: (i) Due to large and growing population and consequent greater demands
(ii) T o facilitate higher food grain production for large population, water resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry season agriculture.
(iii) In the housing societies or colonies in the cities, there is an arrangement of own ground water pumping devices to meet water needs.
5 Marks Questions
Question 37. Why is roof-top water harvesting important in Rajasthan? Explain.
Answer : Roof top water harvesting is important in Rajasthan because:
(i) It was commonly practised to store drinking water.
(ii) The rainwater can be stored in the tanks till the next rainfall, making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers.
(iii) Rain water, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water.
(iv) Many houses construct underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanka’ to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
(v) Some houses still maintain the tanks since they do not like the taste of tap water.
Question 38. Explain any three reasons responsible for water scarcity in India.
Water is available in abundance in India. Even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Explain it with four examples.
Answer : (i) The availability of water resources varies over space and time, mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation.
(ii) Over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
(iii) Water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water. A large population means more water to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture.
(iv) Most farmers have their own wells and tubewells in their farms for irrigation to increase their production. But it may lead to falling groundwater levels, adversely affecting water availability and food security of the people. Thus, inspite of abundant water there is water scarcity.
Question 39. Describe any four traditional methods of rainwater harvesting adopted in different parts of India.
Answer : Methods of rainwater harvesting used in India are:
(i) Guls and Kuls : People built guls and kuls in hilly and mountainous regions to divert water. These are simple channels. They are mainly used in the Western Himalayas.
(ii) Roof top rainwater harvesting : Commonly practised to store drinking water in Rajasthan.
(iii) Inundation Channels : These channels developed in the flood plains of Bengal to irrigate fields.
(iv) Khadins and Johads : In arid and semi-arid regions, some agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures. These structures are found in Rajasthan.
(v) Tankas : The tankas were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected. The rainwater can be stored in the tankas.
Question 40. Why are differentwaterharvesting systems considered a viable alternative both socioeconomically and environmentally in a country like India?
Answer : Keeping in view the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multipurpose projects, water harvesting system is considered a viable alternative both socio-economically and environmentally.
(i) In ancient India also along with the sophisticated hydraulic structures, there existed an extraordinary tradition of various water harvesting systems.
(ii) People adopted different techniques in different areas. In hilly regions people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ for agriculture.
(iii) Roof-top rainwater harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan.
(iv) In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. Khadins, Johads and Tanks are the forms of rainwater harvesting practised in Rajasthan.