3 Marks Questions (30-40 Words)
Question 1 : What was his father’s chief concern for Sadao?
Answer : Sadao’s father was chiefly concerned about Sadao’s education. He tool a lot of pains and sent Sadao to America to study surgery and medicine. He came up to his father’s expectations by becoming a famous surgeon as well as a scientist.
Question 2 : Where, when and how did Dr Sadao meet Hana?
Answer : Dr Sadao met Hana in America when he was studying surgery there. He met her at a get-together arranged by an American professor at his home for foreign students.
Question 3 : Why was Dr Sadao not sent abroad along with the troops?
Answer : Dr Sadao was not sent abroad with the troops because the ailing General trusted no other surgeon but Dr Sadao and could have needed his expert services anytime. Apart from this, he was also perfecting a discovery.
Question 4 : In what condition did Dr Sadao find the American soldier at the seashore?
Answer : Dr Sadao found the American soldier in a wounded condition at the seashore. He was very weak and pale, had a bullet stuck in his wound and his back was stained with blood. He was almost at the verge of death.
Question 5 : What role did the American professor play in bringing Hana and Sadao together?
Answer : The American professor was kind and he invited a number of foreign students at his home and Hana and Sadao were among them. This eventually led to bringing Hana and Sadao together.
Question 6 : What was Sadao’s father’s dream for him? How did Sadao realise it?
Answer : Sadao’s father dreamt of making Sadao a doctor. Sadao realised his dream by going to America to study surgery and medicine. He came back to Japan and became a famous surgeon and scientist before his father died.
Question 7 : Why did Dr Sadao treat the American solider even though, it was an unpatriotic act on his part?
Answer : Dr Sadao treated the American prisoner of war because as a doctor, he was trained to save lives. He could not have let the injured soldier die even though he was his natural enemy ,as that would have been against his professional ethics.
Question 8 : How did Hana help Dr Sadao?
Answer : First Hana washed the wounded man’s face and body with warm water till it was quite clean. She then assisted Dr Sadao during the operation. She brought in the towels and though she was not comfortable at the sight of the bleeding wound, she gave anaesthesia to the patient.
Question 9 : Why did the General did not order immediate arrest of Dr Sadao who had sheltered a white man?
Answer : The General did not usually keep in good health and trusted no other surgeon but Dr Sadao in his time of need and could have needed his services anytime. This is why he did not order immediate arrest of the doctor for harbouring an enemy in his house.
Question 10 : In what context does Hana remember the cruel nature of General Takima?
Answer : Hana remembered General Takima who at home used to beat his wife cruelly. She inferred that if he was so cruel with his wife, he would be extremely cruel with American prisoners.
Question 11 : How nearly did Dr Sadao miss marrying Hana?
Answer : Dr Sadao had met Hana literally by chance at an American professor’s house. He actually did not want to go there as the rooms of the house were small, the food was bad and the professor’s wife was rather voluble. But nevertheless had gone there.
Question 12 : What forced Dr. Sadao to be impatient and irritable with his patient?
Answer : Hana had never seen an operation and the sight of Dr Sadao operating on the soldier made her sick and she rushed to the garden to retch. Dr Sadao knew how distressed Hana was and his inability to go to her made him impatient and irritable with his patient.
Question 13 : What made a cool surgeon like Sadao speak sharply of his wife and what was his reaction?
Answer : Hana had never seen an operation before. When Sadao started operating, blood began to flow. Hana choked at this moment. Sadao sharply told her not to faint because if he had stopped, the wounded man would surely have died. Hana clapped her hands to her mouth and ran out.
Question 14 : Did Hana think the Japanese tortured their prisoners of war? Why?
Answer : When Hana noticed the deep red scars on the American soldier’s neck, she worriedly hoped that he had not been tortured by the Japanese. She knew it was a common practice for the Japanese to torture their prisoners of war in the most brutal manner.
Question 15 : What did Dr Sadao seek from Hana while operating on the wounded white man?
Answer : Dr Sadao sought Hana’s help while operating on the wounded white man by asking her to bring in the towels. He also told her to give anaesthesia to the patient.
Question 16 : Who sent the messenger to Dr Sadao? What for?
Answer : The messenger had come to Dr Sadao’s house to inform him that the old General was in pain again and had to be attended to. Hana got frightened on seeing him, for she thought that he had come to arrest her husband.
Question 17 : Why had Hana to wash the wounded man herself?
Answer : Hana had to wash the wounded soldier as her maidservant, Yumi, refused to wash him. Hana wanted the help the wounded soldier as he was helpless so she washed him herself.
Question 18 : How did Dr Sadao plan the American prisoner’s escape?
Answer : Dr Sadao planned out everything beforehand. He put his boat on the shore with food and extra clothing. He asked the American prisoner of war to row to a little island near the coast and then wait for a Korean ship to pass.
Question 19 : How did Dr Sadao ensure that the American sailor left his house but he himself remained safe and secure?
Answer : Dr Sadao helped the American sailor by giving him a boat, rations, clothes and even a torch light with which he could indicate in case his supplies ran out. He made sure that the soldier was strong enough to take his chance and save his life.
Question 20 : How does the writer indicate that Dr Sadao’s father was a very traditional and conventional man?
Answer : Sadao’s father was a true patriot and took immense pride in Japanese culture and traditions. He did not like any foreign things in his room. That is why Sadao married Hana only after confirming that she was a Japanese.
Question 21 : Why did the General spare the American soldier?
Answer : The General spared the American soldier because he was a selfish man. He thought of nothing but his own life. He needed Sadao for his operation and he forgot about his promise in his pain.
Question 22 : How did the gardener react when Dr Sadao told him about the wounded American soldier?
Answer : The gardener pulled a few hairs from his upper lip when Dr Sadao told him about the American soldier. He was frightened and told Hana that the soldier ought to die and if Dr Sadao heals him, the gun and the sea would take revenge on them.
Question 23 : How was the plan of the prisoner’s escape executed in the story ‘The Escape’?
Answer : The prisoner was made to row to a nearby island where no one lived. All the necessary things were given to him. He was told to signal two flashes if ran out of food. When Dr Sadao received no signal, he was convinced the prisoner had escaped safely.
Question 24 : What secret plan did the General have about the American soldier staying under the care of Sadao?
Answer : The General planned to get the American soldier staying under the care of Dr Sadao assassinated by his private assassins. He assured the doctor about the removal of the dead body also.
Question 25 : Hana told Yumi to wash the soldier. How did Yumi react?
Answer : When Hana asked Yumi to was the soldier, she bluntly refused to do so, saying that he had never washed a white man and she would not wash a dirty one. Yumi obstinately told Hana that she was a poor person and did not want to associate with the man.
Question 26 : Why did the servants leave Dr Sadao’s house?
Answer : The servants left Dr Sadao’s house because they did not approve of the white man staying in the surgeon’s house. Also, they did not want to be in trouble with the authorities if Sadao was arrested as a traitor.
6 Marks Questions (120 – 150 Words)
Question 1 : Dr Sadao faced a dilemma. Should he use his surgical skills to save the life of a wounded person or hand an escaped American POW over to the Japanese police? How did he resolve this clash of values?
Answer : Dr Sadao gives priority to his professional ethics over his patriotism and uses his surgical skills to save the life of a wounded man even though he belonged to the enemy’s camp. He rises above narrow prejudices and realises his duty as a doctor. The surgeon in him instinctively inspires him to operate upon the dying soldier and save his life. But he is also a responsible and patriotic citizen of his country so he decides to inform a senior Japanese Army General about the prisoner’s presence in his house and even agrees to have him killed by the General’s assasins. He even spends three restless nights waiting for the assassins to carry out their job. But the assassins do not arrive. In this way, Dr. Sadao is able to resolve the clash of his values and appease his conscience of having done his duty as a responsible citizen of his country.
Question 2 : Dr Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. How could he honour both the values?
Answer : Dr Sadao was indeed a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. An American run away prisoner in a badly wounded condition is washed ashore on Japanese doctor Sadao’s doorstep. The doctor is initially a little hesistant to save the prisoner’s life when the discovers the latter’s real identity. But being a dedicated surgeon he decides to treat the enemy soldier. He is able to save the prisoner’s life but being a patriotic Japanese he informs a senior Japanese Army General about the prisoner’s presence in his house and even agrees to have him killed by the General’s assassins. He waits for the assassins to carry out their job but when they do not arrive, he gives the prisoner his boat and helps him to escape safely thus honouring both the values that he was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon.
Question 3 : How did the arrival of the prisoner destroy the peace of Sadao’s home?
Answer : The arrival of the prisoner does destroy the peace of Sadao’s home. At the onset Dr Sadao and his wife are anxious and confused whether they should save the wounded soldier who they know is an American. The servants in Dr. Sadao’s house are against his decision of harbouring a soldier from the enemy’s camp. Yumi refuses to wash the American soldier as he was a white man. The cook and gardener criticise Dr Sadao and threaten to leave the house. Finally all the servants leave .Dr Sadao’s home and Hana, stands by him but is in constant terror. The messenger from the General frightens Hana. She fears her husband will be condemned as a traitor. Dr Sadao himself is in a dilemma. Being a patriotic Japanese citizen he doubts the rightness of his act. It is only after the prisoner leaves that things start getting normal in Dr Sadao’s house.
Question 4 : What was the General’s plan to get rid of the American prisoner? Was it executed? What traits of General’s character are highlighted in the lesson?
Answer : Dr Sadao informed the General about the presence of an American prisoner at his house. The General decided that his private assassins would kill him and would even take his body away. Sadao agreed to the General’s proposal. However, the General’s assassins did not arrive for the next three days.
When Sadao informed the General about the escape of the prisoner, the General replied that he was sick and thus forgot about the whole affair. He further wanted that Sadao must not inform anybody about this.
This shows that the General was highly selfish. He had regard only for his own safety and pride. Also, the did not send Sadao to the battlefield as he needed his services himself. He considered himself more important than the lives of thousands of soldiers.
Question 5 : What conflicting ideas arise in Dr Sadao’s mind after he has brought the wounded American solider home? How is the conflict resolved?
Answer : From the day Dr Sadao found the wounded soldier outside his house, he had been caught up in a web of conflicts and difficulties.
The first difficulty arose when Sadao decided to operate upon the soldier. He was caught between his duty as a doctor and loyalty towards his nation. Nonetheless, Sadao emerged as a champion in this regard. As an ethical and sincere doctor, he saved the life of the soldier. Next, when the General’s men did not arrive to kill the enemy, Sadao was again caught in a conflict as to how to get rid of the white man. His innate virtues of compassion and benevolence forbade him from killing the man. Thus, he decided to let the prisoner escape by sending him off to an unguarded island.
This is how Dr Sadao successfully resolved the conflict.
Question 6 : Explain the reactions of the servants in Dr Sadao’s house when he decided to give shelter to an enemy in the house.
Answer : The servants in Dr Sadao’s house were openly defiant to the fact that the had decided to give shelter to an enemy in the house. They did not even enter’s the American soldier’s room and did not want to stay in the same house where the enemy soldier was lodged. They doubted their master’s very loyalty towards his own country. Though they were mindful of their courtesies but their eyes were cold. Yumi refused to clean the enemy soldier. The old gardener was sore that Dr Sadao had not let the young man bleed and die. He felt if his master healed what first the gun and the sea did, they would be avenged. The cook too was most contemptuous of the fact that their master was so proud of his skill to save life that he saved any person’s life even though he was their enemy. Finally all the servants left Dr Sadao’s house together.
Question 7 : Do you think Dr Sadao’s final decision was the best possible one in the circumstances? Why/Why not? Explain with reference to the story, ‘The Enemy’.
Answer : Dr Sadao rose above narrow prejudices of race and country and not only saved the young American soldier from dying, but also helped him to escape. Basic human goodness overpowered Dr Sadao and the final decision that he took was indeed the best possible one in the circumstances. He could not hand over a dying man, even if he was an enemy, to the police. The ethics of his profession had taught him to save a dying man. His essential love for humanity and his sincerity towards his duty as a doctor transcend all other narrow considerations. As a doctor, it was his duty to save a dying man and so he put aside all other options and respected the ideals and principles of his profession.
Question 8 : Dr Sadao was more a dutiful doctor than a loyal citizen. Substantiate the statement by quoting suitable evidence from the story, ‘The Enemy’.
Answer : Dr Sadao is a dutiful doctor when it comes to commitment towards his profession even his obligation towards his country becomes secondary to him. He brings back to life a man who is on the verge of death without caring about the fact that the person whose life he is saving is a soldier of the enemy camp. It is Dr Sadao’s conscience and professional ethics that supercede his patriotism and so he saves the American soldier. He rises above narrow prejudices as he realises that his job as a doctor is to save a life and not to take it away. Even after he told the General everything about the American soldier, he felt restless for three consecutive nights at the thought that he was actually waiting for someone to be killed. Finally, he decided to help the soldier to escape so that he could be at peace with himself and put his body and his mind to rest.
Question 9 : What impression do you form about Dr Sadao as a man and as a surgeon on your reading the chapter ‘The Enemy’?
Answer : After going through the chapter, ‘The Enemy’, we come to the conclusion that Dr Sadao was an excellent surgeon and a human being par excellence. He appeared to be a man full of compassion and a surgeon in the truest sense of the word.
Although he had a bitter experience of Americans, being prejudices when he was a student in America, he did not let that bitterness overwhelm him and the doctor and fine human being in him prevailed. He knew that, if being found that he had harboured an American POW in his own house, he would be labelled a traitor.
His conscience did not permit to let a human being die before his eyes and he took the risk of being called a traitor. It was not that he was a traitor. He promptly informed the General about the whole incident. It showed that he was not a coward. He was ready to face the consequences.
Question 10 : Why did Sadao help the American soldier to escape? How did he do it?
Answer : Sadao’s expertise in his profession and compassion as a human being were his most dominant personality traits. As a dutiful doctor, he could not have let the prisoner die of his injuries and so he saved his life. At the same time, he acted like a responsible citizen and informed the General of the presence of the enemy in his house. However, when the General’s men did not come to kill the American, Sadao decided to save his life.
Dr Sadao didn’t want to throw him into the jaws of death again. He asked the young soldier to take his private boat at night. He should row in the cover of darkness to a little deserted island nearby. The young American could live there until he saw a Korean fishing boat pass by. Food, bottled water and two quilts were put inside the boat. If the food ran out, he could signal two flashes.
He was not to signal in darkness because he could be seen. Thus, the young American came down into the darkness of the garden and escaped.
Question 11 : Why did Sadao Hoki go to America? Narrate his experiences there.
Answer : Sadao Hoki went to American to study surgery and medicine as it was the wish of his father. His experience of living in America was not very good but he was grateful to have some good professors who taught him well. Also, he was grateful to the professor at whose home he had met Hana and immediately liked her. But he did not like the smell of their food, their small room and the wife of the professor, who was very talkative, although she tried hard to be kind.
Initially, he had faced great difficulty in finding a place to live in America because he was a Japanese. He perceived that Americans were full of prejudice and for him it was a bitter experience to live with them.
Question 12 : Draw a character sketch of the old General in the lesson, ‘The Enemy’.
Answer : The old General is a man whose personal consideration over-weighed all other considerations. Even though the Second World War was in progress and a doctor of the caliber of Dr Sadao would have proved to be a blessing for the wounded soldiers on the front, he was retained in Japan because he was indispensable for the General’s health and well-being. Despite knowing about the presence of the American soldier at Dr Sadao’s house, he refrains from sending his private assassins to kill the enemy soldier. He understands Dr Sadao’s importance for his own survival and so does not want to take a chance in case the assassins accidentally harm Dr Sadao or his wife. The General, therefore , come across a strange and selfish person who is actually too preoccupied with his own self. He being a General, his illness and his fear of death outweigh all his other considerations, even those towards his country.
Question 13 : Dr Sadao was compelled by his duty as a doctor to help the enemy soldier. What made Hana, his wife, sympathetic to him in the face of open defiance from the domestic staff?
Answer : As a doctor, it was Dr Sadao’s moral responsibility to save Tom, the American prisoner of war, but Hana was under no such compulsion. In spite of this, she abided by her husband’s decisions because she was a dutiful wife who pledged to support her husband even through the most difficult times.
Secondly, Hana being a woman, was soft-hearted. She could not see a wounded person being left in the lurch. As a woman, she adorned the role of a life-giver and a preserver. She could not have been a destroyer. That is why she cleaned the prisoner when her maid was unwilling to do so. She also assisted her husband in the operation on the American, despite the fact that she could not stand the blood, and started vomiting when she saw it. She was thus a dutiful wife and life-giver.
Question 14 : Describe the difficulties faced by Dr Sadao when he decided to help the enemy soldier.
Answer : A wounded American soldier who was bleeding was washed away to Dr Sadao’s doorstep. Japan was at war with America and giving shelter to a US soldier was an anti-national activity for which Dr Sadao could be arrested. He could be severely punished on charges of harbouring an enemy. Dr Sadao also had to face open defiance from his servants who refused to cooperate with him and his wife. They thought that the white man ought to die. Dr Sadao was in a fix. He could not hand over a dying man, even if he was an enemy, to the police and protecting him could lead to Dr Sadao’s arrest. But the ethics of his profession had taught him to save a dying man irrrespective of all things. So putting aside his dilemma he did what he ought to do as a doctor. He not only operated upon and saved the enemy soldier but also arranged for his escape.
Value Based Questions : 6 Marks (120 – 150 Words)
Question 1 : To choose between professional loyalty and patriotism was a dilemma for Dr Sadao. How did he succeed in betraying neither?
Answer : Dr Sadao is a modern enlightened and educated Japanese surgeon who succeeded in maintaining a balance between his professional loyalty and patriotism in an admirable manner.
As Japan was at war with America, the White American soldier was considered as his enemy. As a patriotic citizen of Japan. Dr Sadao was duty bound to hand over the American soldier to the Japanese police.
However Dr Sadao was a doctor and his duty towards his profession was to save a human life. Dr Sadao resolved the clash of values in a creative manner. He treated the American soldier by operating him to remove the bullet, thus fulfilling his duty towards his profession.
Simultaneously, he informed the General about the presence of the American, thus fulfilling his patriotic duty towards his country.
Question 2 : Good human values are far above any other value system. How did Dr Sadao succeed as a doctor as well as a patriot?
Answer : In the lesson ‘The Enemy’ Dr Sadao has been able to prove that good human values are far above any other value system. He succeeds as a doctor by fulfilling his professional obligations. At the same time he proves that he is no less a patriot than other Japanese as he informs the General about treating and taking care of bleeding American soldier. He does not want to hide any fact from the higher authority.
Dr Sadao was a true professional. When he finds a badly wounded American sailor near his home, he decided to operate on him due to Sadao having good human values. He considered it his moral duty to help a dying man as he valued human life above everything else.
Question 3 : There are moments in life when we have to make hard choices between our roles as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss with reference to the story you have just read.
Answer : There are times when we are faced with difficult choices in life. An individual is torn between his duty towards his motherland and the moral responsibility of helping a needy person. This is the same dilemma that Sadao is confronted with.
As patriotic citizens of Japan, they (Sadao and his wife) are expected to handover an American prisoner of war to the police. But it is a doctor’s duty to save a human life. How could Sadao leave Tom bleeding to death?
Similarly, Hana is an epitome of kindness and cannot leave a wounded person to die. When Yumi, the governess does not wash the wounded man, Hana does so herself. Likewise Sadao goes through a torturous mental conflict. All these developments lead Sadao to let the prisoner of war escape safely.
Question 4 : Read the following extract and answer the question that follow.
Dr Sadao and his wife, despite every possibility of being caught, save the life of the American prisoner and finally let him escape. Nothing is bigger than patriotism, but there is one sentiment that is above all.
What is the value that was displayed by Dr Sadao and his wife?
Answer : Patriotism is undoubtedly important but it is humanity that is above patriotism. Dr Sadao and his wife know that the Americans are their enemies and that if they let the American prisoner stay, they can land into trouble. Notwithstanding this possibility, they gave him shelter in their house and treat his wounds. Hana washes his wounds when her mind refuses. Dr Sadao operates upon him .However, he proves himself loyal to his country by informing the General about the enemy. When the General’s private assassins fail to turn up, Sadao arranged for the American’s escape. He handles the situation quite diplomatically.
He conveys a message through his noble gesture that nothing is greater than humanity.