1 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Which two objectives Jawaharlal Nehru wished to achieve through the strategy of Non-Alignment?
Answer : The two objectives Jawaharlal Nehru wished to achieve through the strategy of Non-Alignment were :
(i) To equip India to take a firm stand on international issues.
(ii) To enable India to balance one superpower against the other through NAM.
Question 2 : Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization also called Western Alliance?
Answer : The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was also known as Western Alliance because most countries of Western Europe sided with the US.
Question 3 : Why was the Warsaw Pact also called the ‘Eastern Alliance’?
Answer : The Warsaw Pact was also called the ‘Eastern Alliance’ due to the alliance of Eastern European countries with the Soviet Union.
Question 4 : What is the full form of ‘SEATO’?
Answer : The full form of SEATO is the South East Asian Treaty Organization.
Question 5 : What is meant by the Cold War?
Answer : The Cold War was the tense relationship between the US and the USSR and their allies which emerged after the Second World War. The outbreak of the Cold War was due to the different ways of thinking i.e. socialism and capitalism. This war was unlike other wars in which the two sides never clashed directly in battle.
Question 6 : Name the two superpowers responsible for Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
Answer : The USA and the USSR were the two superpowers responsible for the Cold War. The World became unipolar with the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, thus, ending the bipolarity regime.
Question 7 : When and why did India sign the twenty-years ‘Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the Soviet Union?
Answer : India signed the twenty years ‘Treaty of Peace and Friendship’ with the Soviet Union in 1971 in order to counter the US-Pakistan, China axis. This treaty assumed India of Soviet support if the country forced any attack.
Question 8 : Why has India refused to sign the CTBT?
Answer : India has opposed the International treaties aimed at non-proliferation since they were selectively applicable to the non-nuclear powers and legitimised the monopoly of five nuclear powers. Thus, Indi has refused to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
Question 9 : What was the main objective of the New International Order?
Answer : The main objective of the New International Order was development of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) and to lift their people out of poverty.
Question 10 : What was New International Order?
Answer : New International Order was the order aimed at the economic development of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) and to lift the people out of poverty.
Question 11 : “Non-Alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance”. What does this statement mean?
Answer : The statement means that Non-Alignment is not a policy of ‘fleeing away’ or being neutral from the superpowers. It also means playing an active role in meditating between the two rival alliances for the cause of peace and stability.
Question 12 : Mention the impact of the end of the Cold War.
Answer : Impact of the end of the Cold War were:
(i) The hostility between US and USSR came to an end.
(ii) Soviet Union was disintegrated.
(iii) The end of the Cold War meant ‘the end of Bipolarity’ in the world.
Question 13 : What is meant by unipolarity and bipolarity?
Answer : Unipolarity means emergence of only one power i.e. USA after the disintegration of USSR.
Bipolarity means emergence of two military alliances headed by two superpowers i.e. USSR and USA.
Question 14 : Why did India not join either NATO nor SEATO?
Answer : India did not join either NATO and SEATO due to the development of Non-Alignment which gave it a way of staying out of the alliances. India had faith in the policy of Non-Alignment.
Question 15 : What is balance of power?
Answer : Balance of power means when both sides have the capacity to fight against attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war.
Question 16 : Mention the name of the Eastern alliance led by the Soviet Union.
Answer : The Eastern alliance was also known as the Warsaw Pact. It was created in 1955 with principle function to counter NATO’s forces in Europe. It was led by Soviet Union.
Question 17 : List any two characteristics of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Answer : Two characteristics of the Non-Aligned Movement were:
(i) Dissociation from military alliances.
(ii) Aiming for world peace.
2 Marks Questions
Question 1 : In which way did the policy of Non-Alignment serve India’s interests?
Answer : Non-Alignment helped India in furthering its national interest. It serves India’s interests in two ways:
(i) It equipped India to take a firm stand on international issues. This way India found its place in the international political system.
(ii) India through NAM also managed to balance one superpower against the other. It did not invite any threat from either bloc; neither alliances system could take India for granted or bully it.
Question 2 : Mention any two major military features of the Cold War.
Answer : The two major military features of the Cold War :
(i) Both Western and Eastern blocs emerged against each other in building up their military forces as they believed that it was the key to national security.
(ii) The two blocks devoted much of the national capital and human resources in developing nuclear weapons as it was regarded that possession of large amount of nuclear warheads would bring national security.
Question 3 : Which of the two ideologies were involved in a conflict during the Cold War era and why?
Answer : Two ideologies involved in a conflict during the Cold War era were:
(i) The ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism (USA)
(ii) The ideology of socialism and communism (Soviet Union)
These two ideologies were involved in a conflict during the Cold War era because both the superpowers (USA and USSR) were keen on expanding their ideological spheres of influence in different parts of the world.
Question 4 : What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Answer : Cuban Missile Crisis is a term that denotes the confrontation/clash between the two superpowers i.e., the USA and USSR.
The Soviet Union led by the Nikita Khurshchev installed nuclear missiles in Cuba in the hope of converting Cuba into a Russian base. This installation of nuclear missiles threatened a number of cities in the American mainland. As a result, the US President, John F. Kennedy and his advisors ordered the American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba so as to avoid a full scale nuclear war. This series of tensions and confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union is known as the ‘Cuban Missile Crisis’ which later came to be known as ‘Cold War’.
Two world leaders who played crucial role in Cuban Mission Crisis were Nikita Khrushcher and John F. Kennnedy.
Question 5 : What constrained the superpowers to go for a full-fledged war inspite of having nuclear weapons?
Answer : The reason behind constraining of superpowers to go for war is the ‘logic of deterrence’. According to the ‘logic of deterrence’ when both the sides have a capacity to respond against each other and each side has the capacity to ruin the other to such an extent that no country can initiate a war.
Question 6 : Mention any two of the agreements signed between the two superpowers starting in the 1960s.
Answer : The two agreements signed between the two superpowers starting in the 1960’s were:
(i) Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) : It was signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5th August, 1963.
(ii) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) : It was signed in Washington, London and Moscow on 1st July, 1968.
Question 7 : Name any four founders of NAM and the countries they belonged to respectively.
Answer : Four founders of NAM and their respective countries are:
Jawaharlal Nehru : India
Josip Broz Tito : Yugoslavia
Gamal Abdel Nasser : Egypt
Sukarno : Indonesia
Kwame Nkrumah : Ghana
Question 8 : What is meant by Non-Alignment?
Answer : India’s Policy of Non-Alignment was neither negative nor passive. India’s policy can be highlighted in the following two ways:
(i) Firstly, non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions and steps that served its interests rather than the interests of the superpowers and their allies.
(ii) Secondly, India was often able to balance one superpower against the other.
Question 9 : Which organisation came into existence in April 1949?
Answer : The North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them in Europe or North America would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each of these states would be obliged to help the other.
Question 10 : What is meant by ‘Arenas of Cold War’?
Answer : Arenas were the areas where the Cold War driven crisis took place. The Cold War led to several shooting wars and conflicts. Huge military build-ups combined with failed diplomacy between the superpowers made the situation more worse. The USA and the USSR came in direct confrontation in Korea (1950-53) , Berlin (1958-62), the Congo (the early 1960s) and in other places.
Question 11 : Why did India not join either of two camps during the Cold War?
Answer : India did not join any alliance because it was against the bipolarity caused by the superpowers. India was in favour of preserving its sovereignty which could have been diluted by entering into an alliance.
Question 12 : Mention the duration of the First and the Second World War.
Answer : Duration of the First and Second World War is given below:
The duration of the First World War : 1914 to 1918.
The duration of the Second World War : 1939 to 1945.
Question 13 : Why did the two superpowers try to control the smaller nations during the Cold War?
Answer : The two superpowers tried to control the smaller nations during the Cold War because of the following reasons:
(i) They wanted to expand their area of influence.
(ii) They wanted to establish their military bases in the smaller countries.
Question 14 : What is the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) after the end of the bipolar world?
Answer : The role of the NAM became more pronounced after the disintegration of the USSR in 1991. USA came out as the single superpower and thus, the world became unipolar. With the downfall of the socialist camp, the Cold War rivalry lessened.
To some extent NAM proved to be effective in the later period. It has not lost its relevance and the emphasis has shifted from political issues to economic issues such as poverty alleviation, equity in justice, promotion of industrailisation etc.
Question 15 : Mention any two examples of international issues where India took an independent stand.
Answer : Two examples where India took an independent stand are:
(i) India led the world protest against Britain, when the latter attacked Egypt over Suez canal issue in 1956.
(ii) The daring act of India of refusing to sign the NPT in 1968.
Question 16 : Give any two reasons why the smaller states in alliances in the Cold War era, used the link to the superpowers.
Answer : The smaller states in alliances in the Cold War era used the link to the superpowers because they were promised with protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals, mostly regional neighbours with ‘whom they have rivalries’.
Question 17 : Mention any two reforms in the UN after the Cold War.
Answer : The two reforms in the UN after the Cold War were:
(i) Reform of the organisation’s structure and processes.
(ii) Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation.
Question 18 : Mention the full forms of
Answer : The full forms of the given words are:
(i) CENTO : Central Treaty Organisation
(ii) NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
(iii) LDC : Least Developed Countries
(iv) SEATO : South East Asian Treaty Organisation
Question 19 : Name one pact of Eastern alliances and three pacts of Western alliances during the Cold War.
Answer : One pact of Eastern alliances was the Warsaw Pact between USSR and its allies.
Three pacts of Western alliances were:
(i) NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(ii) SEATO : South East Asian Treaty Organisation
(iii) CENTO : Central Treaty Organisation
Question 20 : Mention any two superpowers confrontation during the Cold War which took place in
Answer : (i) 1950-53 : During this period, Korean war took place in which North Korea invaded South Korea. United Nation and USA sided with South Korea and China and USSR with North Korea.
(ii) 1962 : In 1962 Cuban crisis occurred. In communist ruled Cuba, both superpowers USA and USSR confronted over deployment of missiles. USSR stopped deployment of missiles over the objection and interpretation of their ships by US.
Question 21 : How did NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty) not seek to abolish nuclear weapons and was discriminatory?
Answer : NPT’s main concern was to curb the proliferation of nuclear weapons not the abolition of that. It allowed only nuclear weapon states to possess nuclear weapons and stopped others from acquiring it. Hence, it was discriminatory between nuclear weapon states and other countries of the world.
4 Marks Questions
Question 1 : Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the US and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Answer : After the Second World War, there were two camps led by the US and the Soviet Union who became the superpowers. These two superpowers were keen on expanding their spheres of influence in different parts of the world. Many countries decided to join either the US or the USSR. But country like India distanced itself from the two camps. The reason behind this was the policy of Non-Alignment which it followed.
India adopted the policy of non-alignment because it gave India the power to take international decisions and Steps that served its interest rather than the interest of the superpowers and their allies and also the power to balance one superpower against the other.
Non-Alignment helped India in furthering its national interests.
Question 2 : Why did the superpowers need smaller states as their allies? Explain any four reasons.
Answer : The USA and the USSR were the superpowers of the world. They exercised tremendous political, economic and military powers at their disposal.
The reasons due to which the superpowers should have military alliances with small countries were:
(i) They entered into military alliances with smaller countries to spread their ideas and to propagate their ideologies to checkmate the other.
(ii) The small countries were economically retarded, they easily got accommodated into their military plan.
(iii) Also having large number of smaller countries in one’s camp boosted the balance of power towards a particular bloc.
(iv) To gain access to their vital resources such as oil and minerals.
Question 3 : Why is the policy of Non-Alignment of India criticised? Explain any tow reasons.
Answer : India’s policy of Non-Alignment has been criticized for being ‘inconsistent’ and unprincipled due to the following reasons:
(i) Firstly, Non-Alignment was seen as unprincipled because India was unable to communicate its ideas clearly to the world. On many occasions, India did not rise above to take a solid stand on world issues.
(ii) Secondly, India took contradictory postures which were highly inconsistent with its foreign policy. For instance, India’s Treaty of Friendship with the USSR in August, 1971 for 20 years was considered as the violation of the principles of the NAM.
Question 4 : Name any two founders of NAM. The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factos?
Answer : The founders of the Non-Alignment Movement were:
(i) Jawaharlal Nehru of India
(ii) Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia
The first summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. Following factors were responsible for this summit:
(i) NAM countries were cooperating on various world agendas.
(ii) Cold War had already worsened the world order which heightened rivalry between the superpowers and increased the tension worldwide.
(iii) Many newly independent and decolonized countries of Asia and Africa region came into the International Arena and took membership of the UN.
Question 5 : Explain any four objectives of Non-Alignment Movement.
Answer : The four objectives of the Non-Alignment Movement were:
(i) To mediate between the two rival alliances for the cause of peace and stability and refraining member countries from joining military blocs.
(ii) To take measures for the economic development of the third world countries i.e. newly decolonized countries.
(iii) To enable newly decolonised countries to pursue independent policies.
(iv) To draft a policy aiming at the strengthening of independence, ending of colonialism and promoting world peace.
Question 6 : What is the rationale of the Non-Alignment Movement after the end of Cold War?
Answer : The rationale of Non-Alignment Movement after the end of the Cold War was based on recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation. They can become a powerful force if they come together.
This meant that very small and poor countries need not become followers of any big power, instead they could also adopt an independent foreign policy.
Another important rationale behind the movement was based on a resolve to democratise the international system to redress existing inequalities also.
Question 7 : How is Non-Alignment different from ‘neutrality’ or ‘equi-distance’?
Answer : NAM provided a third option or an alternative to bipolarity. It was different from ‘neutrality’ and equi-distance in the following way:
(i) Newly independent countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America used NAM as a platform to raise their voice.
(ii) NAM as a policy of Non-Alliances should not be equated with isolationalism. NAM sought active involvement in the world affairs.
(iii) India with the Non-aligned countries participated in the mediating process of resolving the crisis between the rival alliances. Their positive attributes were the unity they forged amongst themselves and they resolved to maintain distance from superpowers despite the attempts by the two superpowers to bring them into their alliance.
Question 8 : Explain any four important events of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Answer : The four important events that took place during the Cuban Missile Crisis were:
(i) In 1962, the USSR installed its missiles in Cuba. It intended to convert Cuba into a Russian missile base.
(ii) America became aware of the intentions of Russia. As a warning, it ordered American warships to intercept Soviet ships moving to Cuba.
(iii) The US feared of developing nuclear weapon on part of the USSR to challenge supremacy of the US.
(iv) The World was divided into two power blocs to expand their own spheres of influence in the world.
Question 9 : What was India’s response to the Cold War? Explain.
Answer : In response to the Cold War, India adopted a two pronged strategy to combat it. These were:
(i) Firstly, it stayed away from the power blocs and their influence.
(ii) Secondly, it criticised those countries which were newly independent and subsequently becoming allies of the two power blocs.
India was actively pursuing the task of slowing down of the Cold War rivalries through the instrument of NAM. India chose those regions which were neglected by both superpowers to seek and end to Cold War rivalry. Those regions later became a part of what Nehru envisaged was a ‘commonwealth of the cooperating nations’.
Question 10 : Why were most of the Non-Aligned countries categorised as a LDCs (Least Developed Countries)?
Answer : The term Least Developed Countries (LDCs) was created during the Cold War era. The Non-Aligned countries were those which were not aligned with any superpower blocs. These were the newly decolonized countries and were very poor. After achieving independence, they looked upon the developed countries for initiating the process of economic development.
These countries were far behind the countries of the first and second world in terms of economic growth and development.
The countries, which come under the LDC category are the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Strikingly, these were the countries which were under the foreign rule for decades. They rose to the centre stage in the wake of NAM becoming influential.
Question 11 : Mention any four realities that have changed the world politics after the Cold War.
Answer : The world was restructured after the Cold War. Following were the four realities that changed the world politics after the Cold War:
(i) The Cold War ended with the disintegration of the USSR in 1991 which led to the emergence of 12 independent republics carved out of the then USSR which eventually made the Common Wealth of the Independent States (CIS).
(ii) The Cold War had divided the Berlin in the very beginning, however, with the end of Cold War, the Berlin wall collapsed, which unified Germany and Berlin became the capital of the United Germany.
(iii) The significant reality in the post Cold War era, which the world witnessed was the ending of bipolarity and the emergence of the USA as the sole superpower which eventually demanded an end to arms race.
(iv) The US made the capitalist economy as the new dominant model of economic system which led to the near death of communism.
Question 12 : What is New International Economic Order (NIEO)? What role was played by it in changing NAM into an economic pressure group?
Answer : NIEO was a set of proposals out forward during the 1970’s by some developing countries through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) to promote their interests by improving their conditions in international trade.
The need for the NIEO lies in the fact that the developing countries had to go for sustained development to remove the tag of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) on them.
Gradually, the concept of Non-Alignment Movement changed to give greater importance to economic issues. In 1961, at the first summit of NAM at Belgrade, economic issues had not had been very important. By the mid 1970s, they had become the most important issues. As a result, NAM became an economic pressure group.
Question 13 : What is meant by the Arenas of Cold War? Highlight the role played by the Cold War in avoiding another World War?
Answer : Arenas of the Cold War were the areas where the Cold War driven crisis took place. The Cold War led to several shooting wars and confrontations. Huge military build-ups combined with failed diplomacy between the superpowers worsened the situation.
The USA and the USSR came in direct confrontations in Korea (1950-53), Berlin (1958-62), the Congo (the early 1960s) and in other places.
Cold War played an important role in avoiding another World War. The reason behind the Cold War avoided the World War like situation is the logic of deterrence. It means when both the sides have a capacity to retaliate against each other and each side has the capacity to ruin the other to such an extent that no country can initiate a war.
6 Marks Questions
Question 1 : How far is it correct to say the international alliances during the Cold War were determined by the requirements of the superpowers and the calculations of the smaller states? Explain.
Answer : To a large extent it is correct to say that the International alliance during the Cold War era were determined by the requirements of the superpower. It is justified from the following points:
(i) The smaller states decided to alliance with the two superpowers because they were promised protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals. Hence, this led to a division of world into two camps.
(ii) The countries which sided with the US came to known as Western alliance and those who backed USSR were known as Eastern alliance. The Western alliance countries organised themselves into an organization known as North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them in Europe or North America would be regarded as an attack on all of them.
The Eastern alliance, on the other hand, known as the Warsaw Pact, was led by the Soviet Union. It was created in 1955 and its principle function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
(iii) The Europe became the bone of contention between the superpowers. They also used their military power to bring countries into their respective alliances. For example, Soviet Union used its influence in Eastern Europe just to ensure that the Eastern half of Europe remained within its sphere of influence.
(iv) The United State built an alliance system called the South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) in East and South East Asia and in West Asia (Middle East). To counter this, the Soviet Union and the communist China responded by having close relations with regional countries such as North Vietnam, North Korea and Iraq.
Question 2 : Why was the end of the Second World War considered to be the beginning of Cold War? Explain.
Answer : The end of the Second World War was considered to be the beginning of Cold War because it led to the rise of two major centres of power. It paved the way for the Cold War Era. The Second World Ear came to an end with the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the two Japanese cities). It led to the withdrawal of Japan from the war.
The dropping of the bomb by US was criticised as well as supported. According to the critics of the decision, USA was aware of the surrender of Japan hence dropping the bomb was not necessary. They argue that the US action was intended to stop the Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and elsewhere, and to show Moscow that the United States was supreme. The supporters of the decision claim that the dropping of the bomb was a necessary step to end the war quickly and to stop further loss of American and allied lives.
The consequence of this war was the rise of two new powers on the global stage. With the defeat of Germany and Japan, the devastation of Europe and in many other parts of the world, the United States and the Soviet Union became the greatest powers in the world.
Question 3 : Describe any three reasons for the superpowers to have military alliances with smaller countries during the Cold War period.
Answer : The Cold War was the tense relationship between the US and the USSR and their allies which emerged after the Second World War. The outbreak of the Cold War was due to the different ways of thinking i.e. Socialism and Capitalism. This was unlike other wars in which the two sides never clashed directly in battle. The fear that relationship would end in nuclear war did not materialise.
Question 4 : Suppose there had been no Cold War, how would that situation have affected India’s foreign policy?
Answer : The situation must have created the differences:
(i) The spirit of Panchsheel (Peace coexistence) would have been endangered due to India’s unsafe condition after the Second World War, her existence could have been divided into many units. In addition, there were issues of shortage of food grain supply, industrial supply for the development of industries. In this case, India must have gone either into isolation or would have joined any superpower camp. India would have been a member of NATO or Warsaw Pact.
(ii) India must have added some better strategies to its foreign policy. If the situation had not been as it was, UNO and other institutions would have not have been created. New strategies would have been framed for the existence of India.
(iii) Self sufficiency have been achieved by India. If Non-Alignment was followed strictly, India would have been self-sufficient.
Question 5 : How did the ‘New International Economic Order’ came into being? Which reforms were proposed by UNCTAD in its report in 1972?
Answer : The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) was in direct response to the poor economic development in the third world countries.
They were stereotyped as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by the advanced countries because of their state of being under-developed. Achieving economic independence was the goal of these countries and this was precisely the reason for the establishment of the NIEO.
Recognising the right of the LDCs to develop their economies, the United Nations Conference to Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in its report titled ‘Towards a New Trade Policy for Development in 1972,’ proposed a reform of the global trading system.
The reforms were:
(i) To give autonomy to LDCs so that they can have control over their natural resources.
(ii) To provide LDCs access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and hence trade could become profitable for them.
(iii) Western countries should reduce the cost of the technology imported to the LDCs.
(iv) LDCs should be given a greater role in international economic institutions.
Gradually, the nature of the Non-Alignment changed to give greater importance to economic issues. In 1961 at the first summit, economic issues were not very important. By the mid-1970s, they had become the most important issues. Thus, NAM became an economic pressure group.
Although, these reforms sent alarm bells in the ears of the developed countries, however, they could not sustain the pressure of the economic development from the LDCs. This led to the fading of NIEO in the 1980s. It should be noted that the Non-Aligned countries maintained unity in the initial phase of the NAM.
Question 6 : Describe the role played by India in keeping the Non-Aligned Movement alive and relevant.
Answer : The Non-Aligned Movement aimed at establishing a new and equitable international economic, social and political order. Non-aligned countries played a role in reducing Cold War conflicts and averting some serious crisis. For example, Jawaharlal Nehru, one of the key leaders of the NAM played a crucial role in mediating between the two Koreans thereby resolving the arousal of conflicts.
Furthermore, India adopted the policy of NAM/Instead of joining to one of the superpower blocs, it acted as a mediator between two rival alliances. India did so for the cause of peace and stability. India raised the voice against the newly decolonised countries of becoming part of these alliances.
Some examples where India exercised the policy of NAM by taking an independent decision are as follows:
(i) India led the world protest against Britain, when Britain attacked Egypt over Suez Canal issue in 1956 and
(ii) The bold decision of India refusing to sign the NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) in 1968.
India also helped in making measures for economic development of the third world, non-aligned, newly decolonised countries to enable them to pursue independent policies.
Thus, India played an active role in keeping the Non-Aligned Movement alive and relevant.
Question 7 : ‘Non-Aligned Movement has become irrelevant today’. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three suitable agreements.
Answer : NAM which emerged as the alternative to the partisan politics of the first and second world, as based on the idea of mutual understanding and mutual cooperation among member countries. The main objective with which NAM was created was to safeguard the identity of the third world countries who were used as pawns by the superpowers in the power game which was the product of the Cold War and its cumulative effects.
The superpowers looked at NAM with disgust, but for the third world countries it was an important platform protecting the integrity of the third world countries. NAM during the Cold War era softened the Cold War rivalries and contained the further worsening of the Cold War situation.
The role of NAM became more pronounced after the disintegration of the USSR in 1991-USA came out as the single superpower and thus, the world became unipolar. With the downfall of the socialist camp, the Cold War rivalry lessened.
No, I do not agree that Non-Aligned movement has become irrelevant today. It has not become outdated. It is due to the following reasons:
(i) Its members are still bound by the common history and common objectives like economic development of the least developed countries.
(ii) NAM members seek economic aid from the developed countries , sot hat the undeveloped countries can use it into economic prosperity.
(iii) The members of the NAM are anti-colonialist and anti-communist. Their main motives were to emphasise on the rights of the nations and materialisation of peace and security through participation in resolving international issues.
Question 8 : Explain the Eastern and the Western alliances during the Cold War period. Name any two European countries form amongst the following which were not members of these alliances France, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Austria, Romania.
Answer : The two superpowers i.e. the USA and the USSR were keen to expand their spheres of influences in different parts of the world. Hence, the world was sharply divided between the two alliance systems.
These were the Eastern alliance and the Western alliance. The countries which were part of these two alliances were smaller states who got the promise of protection, weapons, and economic aid against their local rivals. Therefore, these alliance systems threatened to divide the entire world into two camps. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US and those of Eastern Europe joined the Soviet Camp.
(i) Eastern alliance or the Warsaw Pact was led by the Soviet Union. It was created in 1955 and its principle function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
(ii) The Western alliance was formed into an organisation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). The alliance sided with the US. IT came into existence in April 1949 and was an association of twelve states. It declared that armed attack on anyone of them in Europe or North America would be regarded as an attack on all of them.
The two countries which were not members of these alliances were Sweden and Austria.
Question 9 : Explain any six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a superpower after the Second World War.
Answer : The six factors which helped the Soviet Union in becoming a superpower after the Second World War era are:
(i) East European countries came under the control of USSR.
(ii) Their political and economic systems were modeled after USSR.
(iii) USSR emerged as a leader of socialist bloc countries.
(iv) Soviet Union has a complex communication networking, vast energy resources-oil, iron and steel machinery.
(v) Production and improvement of transport sector.
(vi) USSR’s domestic consumer industry produced everything from Pins to Cars.
(vii) Ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens.
(viii) Government subsided basic necessities including health, education, children and other welfare schemes.
(ix) No unemployment.
(x) State ownership over land and productive assets.
Question 10 : What led to the emergence of bipolar world? What were the arenas of Cold War between the two blocks?
Answer : The reasons for the emergence of bipolar world were:
(i) Both the superpowers i.e. the US and the USSR were keen to expand their spheres of influence in different parts of the world.
(ii) The smaller countries decided to join either of the alliances in order to get protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals.
(iii) The alliance system threatened to divide the entire world into two camps.
Arenas were the areas where the Cold War driven crisis took place. The Cold War led to several shooting wars and confrontations. The USA and the USSR came in direct confrontation in Korea (1950-53) , Berlin (1958-62), the Congo (the early 1960s) and in other places. It was against this backdrop that the Non-Aligned Movement played a crucial role.
Question 11 : What is meant by isolationism: neutrality and Non-Alignment? Examine the growth of Non-Aligned Movement.
Answer : Isolationism : It is the policy or doctrine of isolating one’s country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements etc; seeking to devote the entire efforts of one’s country to its own development.
Neutrality : It is the policy or status of a nation that does not participate in a war between other nations. It is a concept opposed to state of war.
Non-Alignment is a concept aiming at an independent and peaceful co-existence. It believes in non-involvement in tensions and possible conflicts between power blocs.
Non-Alignment : It grew into a popular international movement. Various countries of the world having different interests joined it. Inspite of the heterogeneous character of NAM , it has made an important contribution to development. A vast majority of NAM members had suffered untold humiliation and suffering under the imperialist domination. But as they were free nations now, they wanted to assert themselves and to charter their own cause of action. Non-Aligned Movement gave the recognition to the smaller countries to have their foreign policy instead of following big powers.