Test and Measurement in Sports Questions and Answers CBSE Class 12 Board Exams

1 Mark Questions

Question 1 : What is a test in sports?

Answer : Test in sports means content knowledge, fitness levels, motor skills as well as attitudes and feelings required for the particular sport.

Question 2 : What is the meaning of the term ‘measurement’ in sports?

Answer : Measurement is a specific score given by an expert every time on applying a test. Each score tells about the use of a test once. Every time a test is used, it must have its score called measurements.

Question 3 : What is Slaughter-Lohman Children Skinfold test?

Answer : Slaughter-Lohman Children Skinfold is a standard test used to measure the body fat in children under the age group 6-17 years. In this test, the skin in the triceps and calf region is measured and then the measurement is inserted into a formula to know the level of body fat.

Question 4 : Name the tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness.

Answer : The tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness are Harvard Step Test and Rockport Test.

Question 5 : Calculate the Physical Fitness Index using short formula for a 12 year old boy having completed Harvard Step Test for a duration of 3 minutes and a pulse rate of 54 beats for 1 to 1.5 minutes.

Answer : Physical Fitness Index (short formula) = (100 x test duration in seconds) divided by (55 x pulse count between 1 and 1.5 minutes)

= 100 x 180/55 x 54

= 60.6

Question 7 : Which motor quality does a senior citizen lack who finds difficulty in tying the shoe laces while sitting on a chair?

Answer : The senior citizen lacks lower body flexibility.

Question 8 : Your grandmother feels she has reduced her upper body flexibility and therefore she wants to test herself. Which test would you suggest her?

Answer : I would suggest my grandmother to take the Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility under the Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Tests.

Question 9 : Which test would you suggest for your grandmother to test lower body flexibility?

Answer : I would suggest Chair Sit and Reach Test for my grandmother to test lower body flexibility.

Question 10 : How can the body fat percentage be computed?

Answer : The body fat percentage can be computed through finding out the Body mass Index (BMI) which is a measure of body fat calculated on the basis of height and weight.

3 Marks Questions

Question 11 : List the six items of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test.

Answer : The six terms of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test are :

i) Pull-ups (for boys)/Flexed arm hang (for girls)

ii) Flexed leg sit-ups

iii) Shuttle run

iv) Standing long jump

v) 50 yard dash

vi) 600 yard run-walk

Question 12 : What is General Motor Fitness? How can it be measured?

Answer : General motor fitness is an athlete’s general ability to perform different motor skills without getting too much fatigued. There are three tests to measure the general motor fitness:

i) Standing Board Jump : This test measures the explosive leg power. It the athlete is fit and has explosive strength then he can use leg power to jump forward. By this test, the fitness of lower limbs is measured.

ii) Zig-Zag Run : This test measures the agility of the athlete as they are required to run through the zig-zag path crated by placing cones. Athletes are not supposed to touch or knock the cones while running.

iii) Medicine Ball Put : This test measures the arm and shoulder girdle explosive strength. The athletes are required to throw the medicine ball with specific weightage as far as possible. For boys its is 3 kg and for girls it is 1 kg.

Question 13 : Explain the Rockport Test.

Answer : The Rockport test tells us about the aerobic fitness of an individual. In this test, the time taken to finish the walk, exercising heart rate, body mass, age and gender are noted. These parameters are inserted in an equation to predict aerobic fitness.

The Rockport Test is performed on  a 400 metre standard track. After walking for one mile, the heart rate is measured at the wrist for 15 seconds immediately after completion. The actual heart rate is determined by multiplying that number by 4. The time taken to complete the 1 mile is converted to the nearest hundredth of a minute.

Question 14 : Give the names of the tests designed by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness and state what each test is used to test.

Answer : The tests designed by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness are:

i) Chair Stand Test for lower body strength.

ii) Arm Curl Test for upper body strength and endurance.

iii) Chair Sit and Reach Test for lower body flexibility.

iv) Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility.

v) Eight Foot Up and Go Test for coordination and agility.

vi) Six Minute Walk Test for aerobic fitness and endurance.

Question 15 : What is the usefulness of Back Scratch Test for senior citizens?

Answer : The usefulness of the Back Scratch Test for senior citizens is to assess the upper body flexibility, particularly the shoulders. The shoulder stretch is a simple flexibility test to determine if the hands can be brought together behind the back particularly the shoulders. This test is part of the fitness programme as an alternative to the back saver sit and reach test.

Question 16 : Describe in detail ‘Eight Foot Up and Go Test’ for agility.

Answer : The Eight Foot Up and Go Test is a coordination and agility test for the elderly. The purpose of this test is to measure speed, agility and balance while moving. The procedure is:

i) Place the chair next to a wall for safety and the marker 8 feet in front of the chair. Clear the path between the chair and the marker.

ii) The subject should start fully seated, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground.

iii) On the command ‘go’, the stopwatch is started and the subject stands and walks ( no running is allowed) as quickly as possible as to and around the cone, returning to the chair to sit down.

iv) The score is the better time of two trials to the nearest 1/10th sec.

Question 17 : Describe the purpose and procedure of Six Minute Walk Test for aerobic endurance.

Answer : Purpose : This test measures  aerobic fitness and endurance of senior citizens.

Procedure : The walking course is laid out in a 50 yard (45.72 m) rectangular area (dimension 45x 5 yards) with cones places at regular intervals to indicate distance walked. The aim of this test is to walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover as much ground as possible. Subjects are to set their own pace (a preliminary trial is useful to practise pacing) and are allowed to stop for a rest if they desire.

5 Marks Questions

Question 18 : Describe the Kraus Weber Test in detail.

Answer : The Kraus Weber Test is a set of minimum muscular fitness of the various muscles of the body. The test consists of six items which indicate the level of muscular strength and flexibility of key muscle groups. Usually the scoring of each item is graded either on pass/fail basis or a range of scoring from zero to ten. A subject’s grade of zero means that the subject has failed in a particular test item; score ranges from one to ten are for subjects who pass these test items.

The six tests are:

• Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
• Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
• Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
• Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
• Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
• Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

Question 19 : Explain AAHPER physical fitness test.

Answer : The AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation) youth fitness test was formed in 1965 in United States, but was revised in 1976. Later, dance was also added and it was known as AAHPERD.

The students are advised to warm up before they participate in the test. All the students must be medically fit. This test has the following six items:

i) Pull-ups (for boys) / Flexed arm hang (for girls) to measure arm and shoulder strength.

ii) Flexed leg sit-ups to measure abdominal strength and endurance.

iii) Shuttle run to measure speed and agility.

v) 50 yard dash to measure speed.

vi) 600 yard run-walk to measure endurance.

Question 20 : Explain the measurement of cardiovascular fitness Harvard Step Test.

Answer : The Harvard Step Test is a test that measures the cardiovascular fitness. The equipment required to perform the test are: bench 20 inches high, stopwatch and metronome. The procedure is that the performer steps up and down 30 times a minute on the bench. Each time the subject should step all the way up on the bench with the body erect. The stepping exercise continues for exactly 5 minutes, unless the performer is forced to stop sooner due to exhaustion.

As soon as he stops exercising, the performer sits on a chair quietly while pulse rates are counted at 1 to 1 1/2 , 2 to 2 1/2 and 3 to 3 1/2  minutes after the exercise.

The Physical Fitness Index (PFI) is computed using the formula :

PFI = (Duration of exercise in seconds x 100) / (2 x Sum of pulse counts in recovery)

Question 21 : How the cardiovascular fitness is measured with the help of ‘Harvard Step Test’? Write in detail about its administrative procedure.

Answer : The Harvard Step Test is a test that measures the cardiovascular fitness. The equipment required to perform the test are: bench 20 inches high, stopwatch and metronome. The procedure is that the performer steps up and down 30 times a minute on the bench. Each time the subject should step all the way up on the bench with the body erect. The stepping exercise continues for exactly 5 minutes, unless the performer is forced to stop sooner due to exhaustion.

As soon as he stops exercising, the performer sits on a chair quietly while pulse rates are counted at 1 to 1 1/2 , 2 to 2 1/2 and 3 to 3 1/2  minutes after the exercise.

The Physical Fitness Index (PFI) is computed using the formula :

PFI = (Duration of exercise in seconds x 100) / (2 x Sum of pulse counts in recovery)

Question 22 : Describe the procedure for administering the Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test.

Answer : The Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test for assessing the functional fitness of older adults describes easy to understand and effective tests to measure aerobic fitness, strength and flexibility using minimal and inexpensive equipment.

These test items involve common activities such as getting up from a chair, walking, lifting, bending and stretching.

The tests were developed to be safe and enjoyable for older adults while still meeting scientific standards for reliability and validity.

The tests designed by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness are:

i) Chair Stand Test for lower body strength.

ii) Arm Curl Test for upper body strength and endurance.

iii) Chair Sit and Reach Test for lower body flexibility.

iv) Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility.

v) Eight Foot Up and Go Test for coordination and agility.

vi) Six Minute Walk Test for aerobic fitness and endurance.

Question 23 : Explain the Arm Curl Test for upper body strength for senior citizens.

Answer : The Arm Curl Test is a test of upper body strength. The purpose of this test is to measure upper body strength and endurance. The subject has to do as many arm curls as possible in 30 sec. This test is conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side).

Its procedure is:

i) The subject sits on the chair holding the weight (8 pounds for men / 5 pounds for women) in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arm in a vertically down position beside the chair.

ii) The upper arm is held close to the body so that only the lower arm is moving.

iii) The subject curls the arm up through a full range of motion, gradually turning the palm up (flexion with supination).

iv) Then the arm is lowered through the full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then fully straightened at the elbows.

v) Repeat this action as many times as possible within 30 sec.

vi) The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 sec.

Question 24 : Describe the measurement of flexibility using the Chair Sit and Reach Test.

Answer : The Chair Sit and Reach Test is part of the senior fitness test protocol, and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors.

Purpose : This test measures lower body flexibility.

Equipment Required : Ruler, a chair with straight back or folding chair (seat 17 inch/44 cm high).

Procedure : The subject sits on the chair placed against a wall for safety.

One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel touching the floor, with ankle bent at 90 degrees . Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even, exhale and reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up.

Avoid bouncing or quick movements and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight and hold the reach for 2 sec. The distance to be measured is between the finger tips and the toes. If the finger tips touch the toes then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (negative score); if they overlap, measure by how much (positive score). Perform two trials and record the better score.

Question 25 : What are the six test items of the Kraus Weber muscular strength test?

Answer : The six test items of the Kraus Weber muscular strength test are given below:

i) Abdominals Plus Psoas (hip flexing) Muscles : The subject lies supine with hands behind the neck. The feet are held by the examiner. On command, the subject rolls up into a sitting position. This is a test of the strength of abdominal and psoas muscles. If the subject performs one sit-up then passes otherwise score remains zero.

ii) Abdominal Minus Psoas : The subject lies supine, hands behind neck and knees bent. On command, the subject tries to roll up into a sitting position. This is a further test of abdominal muscles without psoas. Scoring is like test 1.

iii) Psoas or P : The subject lies supine with hands behind the neck and legs extended. On command, the feet are lifted 25 cms (10 inches) above the ground and maintained for ten seconds. This is a test for the strength of psoas and lower abdominal muscles. Scoring depends on the number of seconds the exact position is held.

iv) Upper Back or UB : The subject lies prone with a pillow under the abdomen but far enough down to give a see-saw effect. He holds his hands behind the neck. The examiner holds down the feet and asks the subject to raise up the position for ten seconds. This test is for strength of the upper back muscles. Scoring is like test 3.

v) Lower Back or LB : The subject lies prone over the pillow and places his hands in front and rest hist head on them. The examiner holds the chest down and asks the subject to lift his legs up without bending the knees and maintain the position for ten seconds. This is a test for the strength of the lower back muscles. Scoring is like test 3.

vi) Back and Hamstring or BH : The subject stands erect with his hands at sides and feet together. On command, he leans down slowly to touch the floor with his fingertips. The knees are kept straight and the leaning down position is maintained for ten seconds. No bouncing is allowed to touch. This tests the length of back and hamstring muscles and is a test of flexibility. Scoring is like the above tests.

Value Based Questions

Question 26 : While taking medicine by Rony’s grandfather, a pill was dropped which slipped under the bed. The old man was not able to bend down. Seeing this, Rony quickly picked up the pill from under the bed and also poured a glass of water to his grandpa to swallow the pill.

i) What values are shown by Rony?

ii) Which test can be suggested to measure the fitness of grandpa?

iii) Who prepared the physical fitness tests for the elderly people?

Answer : i) The values shown by Rony are helpful, kindness, care and respect for the elderly.

ii) The test that can be suggested is Chair Sit and Reach Test as it measures lower body flexibility.

iii) The tests for the elderly were prepared by Rikli and Jones. That is why these tests are called Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test.

Question 27 : After failing in the pull up activity, the sports teacher advised Arun not to lose hope as five other tests were remaining. He also advised Arun and other students to do proper warm up before their participation.

i) Which test is being talked about in this question? Name its parts.

ii) What values are shown by the sports teacher?

Answer : i) The test is AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation).

Its parts are as follows:

a) Pull-ups (for boys)/Flexed arm hang (for girls)

b) Flexed leg sit-ups

c) Shuttle run

d) Standing long jump

e) 50 yard dash

f) 600 yard run-walk

ii) The values shown by the sports teacher are commitment and excellence. The teacher shows care, dedication and also motivates the students.