Strategies For Enhancement in Food Production
Short Questions and Answers
One mark questions with answers
1. Mule is produced by
(c) interspecific hybridization
(d) cross breeding
Answer: (c) interspecific hybridization
2. Which of the following category of plant diseases cannot be controlled by chemical treatment?
(a) viral diseases
(b) diseases caused by nematodes
(c) fungal diseases
(d) both a and b
Answer: (a) viral diseases
3. Androgenic haploids are produced in anther cultures by
(b) anther wall
(d) young pollen grains
Answer: (d) young pollen grains
4.Variations appearing in tissue culture are
(a) somaclonal variations
(b) clonal variations
(c) somatic variations
(d) tissue culture variations
Answer: (a) somaclonal variations
5. The technique required for obtaining virus-free plants is
(a) root tip culture
(b) shoot tip culture
(c) callus culture
(d) suspension culture
Answer: (b) shoot tip culture
6. Somaclonal variation is obtained through
(a) chemical mutagens
(b) gamma rays
(c) tissue culture
Answer: (c) tissue culture
7. For producing protoplasts from plant cells, the following are required
(a) amylase and pectinase
(b) cellulase and proteinase
(c) cellulase and pectinase
(d) cellulase and amylase
Answer: (c) cellulase and pectinase
8. Part of flower removed in emasculation is
Answer: (c) anthers
9. In tissue culture, single germinating pollen grain will form a plant
Answer: (b) haploid
10. In callus culture, rooting can be induced by
Answer: (c) auxin
11. Borlaug developed new varieties of
Answer: (a) wheat
12. Virus free plants can be obtained by
(a) embryo rescue
(b) meristem culture
(c) protoplast culture
(d) anther culture
Answer: (b) meristem culture
13. Haploids of Datura were obtained through
(a) embryo culture
(b) meristem culture
(c) callus culture
(d) anther culture
Answer: (d) anther culture
Two marks questions with answers
1. Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
Answer: Fish and other edible aquatic animals are important source of food which is a complete diet. It is rich in protein, minerals and vitamins. Some fish are also source of oil. Fish farming and other types of pisciculture are catching up with farmers as the yield is high with good financial gain. It supplements the availability of meat and eggs for meeting the nutritional requirement of non vegetariants. Enhanced fish availability is called blue revolution.
2. Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Answer: Biofortification is a crop breeding program that is aimed at increasing nutritional quality of the crop like high vitamin content, more minerals, complete proteins and healthier fats, example, lysine and tryptophan rich maize, vitamin A enriched carrot.
3. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
Answer: A very large number of identical, virus free plants of desired characters (example, stress tolerance, weedicide resistance, mutations) can be raised in very short duration.
4. What are the various components of the medium used for propagation of explant in vitro?
Answer: Medium should provide carbon source such as sucrose, inorganic salt, vitamins, amino acids and growth regulators like auxins, cytokinins etc.
5. Write down the significance of embryo culture.
Answer: (1). Inter specific crosses (embryo rescue): embryo of interspecific crosses fails to develop normally but can be made to grow over culture medium.
(2). Overcoming seed dormancy and seed sterility: embryos of dormant and sterile seeds can be taken out in early stages and grown over culture medium to form seedlings.
(3). Orchids: In orchids the seeds are deficient in food to support growth of embryo. Their young embryos are taken out and grown over the culture medium. The technique is also used in rapid clonal propagation.
6. Differentiate between aquaculture and pisciculture.
Answer: Aquaculture is the growing of all types of aquatic organisms in water bodies whereas pisciculture is growing of only food fish and related food animals in water bodies. In aquaculture there is little requirement of special feed from outside whereas in pisciculture fish feed has to be provided from outside. A number of economically important substances can be obtained from aquaculture whereas pisciculture deals only food items.
Three marks questions with answers
1. Mention the economic importance of apiculture.
Answer: (1). Honey: It is a natural sweetener, laxative, expectorant and blood purifier. Honey is a tonic and immediate source of energy. It is good for children. It is used in preparation of honey biscuits and honey bread.
(2). Bees wax: Bees wax is used in cosmetics, creams, ointment, paints and polishes. Candles are only occasionally produced because beeswax tends to crack in cold. The candles are however smokeless.
(3) Bee venom: Venom from sting is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
(4) Propolis: It is resin derived from plants. It has antiseptic and antibiotic properties.
(5) Pollination: The biggest use of honey bee is that it is the major pollinator of many crop plants example, Sunflower, Brassica, Apple, Pear. Keeping beehive in or near field during flowering of crop plants increases pollination efficiency, crop yield as well as yield of honey.
2. What is meant by term breed? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
Answer: Breed is a nearly homogeneous group of animals within a species, subspecies or a variety which are related by descent and are similar in general appearance, size, configuration and other features, example, Sahiwal, Brown Swiss. Breeds are generally developed and maintained by humans.
Objectives of animal breeding:
The chief objectives of animal breeding are
(1) increased yield like that of milk, eggs, meat and wool.
(2) Better quality of animal products like milk, eggs, meat and wool
(3) Higher growth rate
(4) Better assimilation efficiency
(5) Resistance to various diseases
(6) Longer productive life
(7) Higher acceptable reductive rate
3. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding
Answer: (1). Collection of variability: Whole variability of the species under breeding programme is recorded.
(2). Evaluation and selection of parents: Desirable traits required new variety are searched. On this basis, two to several types of plants are selected as parents. They are selfed to obtain as much homozygosity as possible without diluting the chosen traits. Defective plants are discarded.
(3). Cross hybridization: Single to multiple crosses are made between parents having desired characteristics genetically combine the characters in a single variety. Plants are protected from contamination of undesired pollen by bagging and emasculation. F1 plants are analysed for availability of desired variations.
(4). Selection: Seeds of only those plants are selected which have desired characters. Selection is made at every generation. Back crosses are made if desired characters of one parent are not incorporated.
(5) Testing, release and commercialization: The newly developed variety is tested by ICAR by growing it into particular agroclimatic region. If found suitable the variety is given name and allowed to be released.
4. List the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Answer: Animal husbandry is connected with providing milk, egg, meat, honey, fibres and hides. It is a source of livelihood for a large number of persons.
(1) Milk: It is an important product of farm animals that is consumed as such, in the form of curd, cheese, butter, ice cream, etc. Milk is the only source of first class or animal protein for vegetarians. It is a complete food. Most of the milk is obtained from cow and buffalo. Other milk yielding animals are goat, sheep, camel and yak.
(2) Egg: Like milk, egg is also a complete food. Chicken and duck are the two major sources
(3) Meat: It is a protein rich diet that is obtained from all types of life stocks, example, goat, sheep, pig, cattle, chicken, fish etc.
(4) Honey: It is a sweet syrup got from hives of honey bee. Honey is used in sweetening various preparation.
(5) Fibres: Wool and silk are too high quality fibres got from animals. Wool is hair of sheep, goats and rabbits. Silk is a product of silkworm.
(6) Hides: The skin of many animals are converted into hides and leather.
(7) Draught animals: A number of animals are used to carry men and materials besides other functions e.g., buffalo, bullock, horse, camel, elephant, reindeer, yak.
(8) Employment: Rearing of animals provides useful employment to many persons. Experts of animal husbandry provide information on various aspects of farm animals wild animal breeders are engaged in improving their stock