1 Mark Questions
Answer : A diet that contains sufficient amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, salts, vitamins and water is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amount of each nutrient required by our body.
Answer : Food is a mixture of various substances which are essential for life, whereas nutrition is a dynamic process in which the body is made healthy by the consumption of food.
Answer : Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Sources : Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc.
Function : The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, brain and nervous system.
Answer : The diet includes a lot of protein because proteins contain amino acids. This is used in building muscles and increase strength which are necessary for weightlifting.
Answer : Fats are energy boosters which provide us with twice as much energy as carbohydrates. We can store extra fat in our body to be used later.
Answer : Micro nutrients are little Wonders of Nature that control growth and development, cell formation, disease resistance and repair processes of our body.
Answer : Vitamins are compounds of carbon which are essential for the normal growth and working of the body. They are required in very small quantities. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12).
Answer : Calcium : milk, cheese
Iron : meat, eggs.
Answer : Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water are called components of diet. These components are composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other macro and micro elements like calcium, iron, zinc etc.
Answer : Non-nutritive components of diet are:
i) Colour compounds
ii) Flavour compounds
Answer : Food supplements which are also known as dietary supplement, are providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial substances in the form of capsules, soft gels, cops and tablets.
Answer : Food supplements can interact with medications which can cause unwanted side effects and decrease the efficacy of the medicine.
Answer : Dietary supplements if taken in heavy doses can be toxic and cause serious side effects. For example:
i) Heavy dose of vitamin A can cause liver damage, blurred vision, headache, bone pain and nausea.
ii) Heavy dose of iron can cause digestive problems.
Answer : Fluid intake is very essential during competition as it helps to keep the body hydrated. The fluid intake requirement depends upon the duration of the events, as explained below:
For events lasting for less than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 180-240 ml of water every 10-15 minutes to prevent dehydration.
For events lasting for more than one hour, it is recommended that competitors consume 150-300 ml of carbohydrate/electrolyte beverage every 15-20 minutes during exercise.
3 Marks Questions
Answer : Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These are the most concentrated source of energy in food.
Sources of Fats : Animal products like meat, poultry and dairy products like milk , cream, cheese, butter and ice-cream, peanuts, olive oil etc.
Types : Fats can be classified according to their structures. Different, types of fats have different characteristics and these react in different ways inside the body. There are three different groups of fats in the diet which are saturated, poly-unsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fats increases the chances of heart diseases due to the increase of cholesterol in the blood.
- Fats keep us warm and give protection to organs.
- Fats also help in production of hormones.
- Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions.
- Fats help in transportation of fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E and K.
- Fats maintain skin and hair.
Answer : Fats are essential ingredients of food. Fat is also a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Functions of Fats:
They provide heat and energy to the body.
They also help in regulation of body temperature.
They are considered better than carbohydrates as sources of energy.
Fats keep us warm and give protection to organs.
Sources of Fats :
Animal Sources – We get various products from animals such as ghee, butter, curd, fish oil, milk, meat and eggs.
Vegetable Sources – We also get fats from various vegetables such as dry fruits, coconut, soybean, foodgrains, mustard oil and cotton seeds.
Answer : Vitamins are compounds of carbon. These protect us from various diseases and are essential for general growth and development of our body.
Types of vitamins : There are various types of vitamins such as A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12).
There are two groups of vitamins:
Fat Soluble Vitamins : Fat soluble vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in fat. These vitamins are A, D, E and K which are given below:
- Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, proper functioning of nervous system and digestive system.
- Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth.
- Vitamin E increases fertility and ensures proper functioning of glands.
- Vitamin K helps in clotting of blood.
Water Soluble Vitamins : These vitamins are soluble in water. These contain the elements of nitrogen and sulphur. These vitamins are B complex and C which are given below:
Vitamin B consists of various groups of vitamins namely B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12 . They are necessary for the proper growth and functioning of various organs of the body.
Vitamin C is essential for maintenance of ligaments, tissues, tendons and strong blood vessels.
Answer : The vitamins that are soluble in fats are called fat soluble vitamins. They are vitamin A, D, E and K.
Vitamin A : This is essential for normal growth of the body. Deficiency of vitamin A leads to night blindness and also affects the kidneys, nervous system and digestive system.
Sources are milk, curd ghee, egg yolk, fish, tomato, papaya, green vegetables, orange, spinach, carrot and pumpkin.
Vitamin D : This is essential for the formation of healthy teeth and bones. The presence of this vitamin is enables it to absorb calcium and phosphorous. Its deficiency causes rickets, softness of bones, teeth diseases.
Sources are egg yolk, fish, sunlight, vegetables, cod liver oil , milk, cream, butter.
Vitamin E : This is essential is increasing the fertility among men and women as well as proper functioning of adrenal and sex glands. Its deficiency causes weakness in muscles and heart.
Sources are green vegetables, sprouts, coconut oil , dry and fresh fruits, milk, meat, butter, maize.
Vitamin K : This is helpful in the clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes anaemia and blood does not clot easily.
Sources are cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, tomato, potato, wheat, egg and meat.
Answer : i) Iodine : Iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Its deficiency causes goitre and sources are seafood and salt.
ii) Calcium : Calcium is helpful in the formation of teeth and bones. It helps in clotting of blood. Its deficiency causes rickets and asthma. Milk, cheese, oranges and green vegetables have a rich amount of calcium.
Answer : Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. These are complex organic compounds. Protein is a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.
There are two types of proteins:
i) Vegetable proteins
ii) Animal proteins
Sources : All meat and other animal products are sources of proteins. The best sources are eggs, milk, meat, poultry, milk products, beans etc.
Answer : What is balanced diet? Elaborate the important nutrients/elements of balanced diet.[/alert-announce]
Answer : A balanced diet is that which contains the proper amounts of each nutrient. A balanced diet consists of all essential food constituents i.e. protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals in correct proportion.
i) Carbohydrates : These are our main sources of energy.
ii) Proteins : These include essential growth as well as repairing muscles and other body tissues.
iii) Fats : These are the sources of energy.
iv) Vitamins : These play an important role in many chemical processes in the body.
iv) Minerals : These are essential for proper growth and functioning of our body.
v) Water : It is essential for normal body functions. It serves as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients.
Answer : Pitfalls of dieting are:
i) Eating too little : In dieting people take just 1500-1800 calories per day. But this is not sufficient to meet the daily requirements. This may result in massive weight loss and other related problems.
ii) More drinking than eating : In order to reduce calorie consumption, more drinks are taken like sweetened juices, sodas, tea and coffee with sugar. These increase the weight.
iii) Skipping meals : Not taking breakfast, lunch, dinner or proper meals reduces the metabolic rate. Then the body starts conserving energy, the next time it gets food. This also results in more intake of calories in next meal.
iv) Intake of labelled foods : By taking foods that are labelled as ‘low fat’, ‘low sugar’, ‘low calories’ may not produce proper results. For example, drinking more tea with sugarfree results in more intake of tea and hence greater calorie consumption.
v) Not performing exercises : No exercises reduce the level of metabolism drastically and there is no burning of calories. In that case dieting will not be effective.
Answer : The major goal of a pre-competition meal is to maximise carbohydrate stores in the muscles and liver and to top up blood glucose stores. This meal should be preferably taken about 3-4 hours prior to the start of the competition. If taken later than this, it results in performing with a full stomach, which causes nausea – the body’s attempt to cease exercise so that it can redirect blood flow back to the stomach. An exception is of carbohydrate immediately prior to the start of a game in the form of a sports drink 5 or 10 minutes before competition.
Answer : Food components whether they are nutritive (providing calories) or non-nutritive (not providing calories) are needed to a multiple of food and beverages. They not only provide a sweet flavour to foods, they are also used to preserve foods ( in jams or jellies), provide body bulk and texture ( in ice-cream and baked goods), enhance other flavours (like salty) and aid in fermentation ( in breads and pickles).
The nutritive components of diet are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.
Non-nutritive components do not contribute to the energy, calories or nutrition of the body. Some non-nutritive components are essential for the body while others harm the body. Colour compounds, flavour compounds, food additives, plant compound, water, roughage or fibre are some non-nutritive components of diet.
5 Marks Questions
Answer : There are many nutrients in the food. These are known as elements.
Essential elements of our diet are:
i) Carbohydrates : These are the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Sources : Fruits, milk, vegetables, pulses, bajra, rice, cakes etc.
Functions : The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the body, brain and nervous system.
ii) Proteins : Proteins are a chain of amino acids that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.
Sources : Eggs, milk, meat, beans, animal products etc.
Functions : Proteins are the main components of muscles, organs and glands. The cells of muscles and ligaments are maintained with proteins and proteins are used for the growth and development of children.
iii) Fats : Fats contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Sources : Animal products, milk, cream, cheese, butter, olive oil, etc.
Functions : Fats are a source of energy. They are important for the proper functioning of the body. Fatty acids provide the raw materials which help in control of blood pressure.
iv) Vitamins : Vitamins are compounds of carbon. The important vitamins are A, C, D, E, K and B-complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12).
Sources : Milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables, exposure to sunlight, oil, nuts, seeds, fish, amla etc.
Functions : Vitamins play an important role in many chemical processes in the body. Vitamins are essential for metabolism of fat and carbohydrate and are needed for healthy skin. They are helpful in RBC production.
v) Minerals : Minerals are iron, calcium, phosphorous, sodium, iodine, copper, chloride, etc.
Sources : Eggs, milk, meat, green vegetables, pulses, fish, salts, tea and coffee etc.
Functions : Minerals are essential for proper growth of the body. Calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones. It is also essential for proper thyroid function.
vi) Water : Water is an important element of balanced diet.
Source : Nature.
Functions : Water helps in the digestive system. It regulates the body temperature and carries nutrients to cells.
Answer : Vitamins are required by the body for the proper growth and development. The following may happen if we will avoid vitamins in our diet:
- In the absence of vitamin A, there may be night-blindness.
- Deficiency of vitamin B causes Beri-Beri disease.
- Deficiency of vitamin C causes Scurvy.
- Deficiency of vitamin E causes weakness in heart and muscles.
- Deficiency of vitamin K causes anaemia.
- In addition, deficiency of vitamins in the body affects the working of the organs, nervous system and digestive system adversely.
- Their presence is necessary for maintaining healthy teeth and bones as well as overall health.
Answer : For a sportsperson , taking proper diet is very essential. The aims of preparing diet for a sportsperson are as follows:
- For maintaining a healthy body weight.
- For providing energy needed to perform various activities of the body.
- For the proper growth of the body.
- For replacing worn out tissues.
- For providing chemicals that help to control the body functions.
- For protecting the body against diseases.
- For providing the body with adequate energy required during practice sessions as well as during competitions.
- For providing easy recovery of cells and tissues after a competition is over.
Answer : For a sportsperson athlete, it is essential to take a balanced diet as lot of physical activity and endurance is needed in sports.
The quality of sports diet depends on the correct proportion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, salts, etc., which constitute the main nutrients of diet.
Functions of different elements of diet are:
- Carbohydrates are helpful in increasing endurance.
- Protein is necessary for the growth and development of various tissues of the body.
- A minimum amount of fat is desirable for a long distance runner, high jumper or gymnast.
- Diet prevents various diseases, maintains healthy weight.
- Vitamins are essential for good performance and overall development of the body.
- Water is essential as it helps in releaving the body of waste materials and transportation of nutrients to cells.
Value Based Question
Answer : Effects of good nutrition on an individual are :
i) Prevent Disease : It includes prevention from cancer, tissues disease, parasitical and bacterial infections.
ii) Maintain Healthy Weight : It includes proper blood pressure, less likely to allow diseases like diabetes, heart malfunctioning etc.
iii) Provide Stress Relief : It includes side effects of drugs, boost immune system of the body and helps to maintain calm and coping abilities.
iv) Good Start to Future Generations : It includes healthy babies, batter immune system, healthy pregnancy etc.