1 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Highlight the most novel aspect of the Chipko movement.
Answer : The Chipko movement was primarily a forest conservation movement in India that, began in 1973 in Uttarakhand (the then Uttar Pradesh). The most novel aspect of the movement was women’s active participation in it.
Question 2 : How did farmers associated with Bhartiya Kisan Union differ from the most other farmers in India?
Answer : Most of the Indian farmers involved in agriculture for subsistence while members of Bhartiya Kisan Union grew cash crops (sugarcane and wheat).
Question 3 : Which one of the two is more essential-construction of mega dams or an environmental movement that opposes it and why?
Answer : Construction of mega dams are essential because we need electricity and water for irrigation and environmental movement are also necessary to check control over environmental degradation. Thus, both are essential for development, however, construction of mega dam must not be carried out at the cost of environment.
Question 4 : Mention two main demands of the Bhartiya Kisan Union (BKU) in 1980s.
Answer : The two main demands of the BKU were:
(i) Higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
(ii) Abolition of restriction on the inter-state.
Question 5 : Name the popular movement which demanded that no forest exploiting contract should be given to any outsider.
Answer : Chipko Movement.
Question 6 : What was the Anti-arrack movement?
Answer : Anti-Arrack movement was a social movement in Andhra Pradesh. It was a movement by rural women against alcoholism, and liquor mafia.
Question 7 : What was the main objective of the Dalit Panthers?
Answer : The main objective of the Dalit Panthers was to destroy the caste system and to build an organisation of all oppressed sections.
Question 8 : What is meant by ‘Party Based Movement’?
Answer : Some social or political movements which are based on the ideologies of political parties but their activities do not participate in elections formally are known as ‘Party based movements’.
2 Mark Questions
Question 1 : How does party-based movement differ from non-party movement?
Answer : Party based movements are based on the ideologies of political parties while non-party based movements are independent from party association.
Question 2 : What was the main demand of Chipko Movement?
Answer : Main demands of the Chipko movement were:
(i) The villagers demanded that no forest exploiting contracts should be given.
(ii) Local communities should have effective control over the forest resources.
Question 3 : Highlight any two main demands of the Anti-arrack movement.
Answer : Two main demands of the Anti-arrack movements are:
(i) To put a ban on the sale of alcohol (arrack) in their concerned areas.
(ii) The movement made demands of equal representation for women in politics.
Question 4 : Mention any two issues of concern related to development projects such as Sardar Sarovar Project.
Answer : Two issues of concern related to development projects such as Sardar Sarovar project are:
(ii) Proper rehabilitation
Question 5 : List any four activities conducted by Bhartiya Kisan Union to pressurise the state for accepting its demands.
Answer : The four activities conducted by Bhartiya Kisan Union to pressurize the state for accepting demands were:
(iv) Jail Bharo
Question 6 : Which groups are mobilised by popular movements? What are the methods used by these movements?
Answer : Poor, socially and economically disadvantaged or marginalised groups of society are mobilised by popular movements. They use the methods to involve large scale participation of citizens.
Question 7 : What was the role of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) in the enactment of Right to Information.
Answer : Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) played following role in the enactment of Right to Information Act:
(i) It took the initiative in demanding records of famine relief work and accounts of labourers.
(ii) In 1966, MKSS formed National Council for People’s Right to information in Delhi to raise RTI to the status of a national campaign.
Question 8 : Which action of the Government of India threatened the fishworkers’ lives in a major way? Which organisation did they form at the national level?
What does NFF stand for? How was fishworkers’ life threatened in a big way?
Answer : NFF stands for National Fishworkers Forum. When the government permitted entry to machanised and technologies like bottom trawling for large-scale harvest of fish in the Indian seas, the lives of the fishworkers were threatened in a major way. They formed National Fishworkers’ forum at the national level.
Question 9 : Why was ‘National Fishworkers’ Forum formed?
Answer : ‘National Fishworkers’ forum was formed due to following reasons:
(i) For protecting ecology
(ii) For protecting lives of the fishworkers.
Question 10 : Mention any two issues raised by the Dalit panthers.
Answer : Dalit panthers, a militant organisation of the Dalit youth, was formed in Maharashtra in 1972. They raised two issues and demanded to abolish it. These issues are following:
(i) Perpetual caste based inequalities.
(ii) Material injustices that the Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.
4 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Assess any two positive aspects of the Chipko movement.
Answer : Two positive aspects of the Chipko movement:
(i) Participation by women : People gathered in large number and women participation was unique to it. It was first time since independence that participation by women in large number was noticed.
(ii) Environmental movement : Chipko movement was the first of its kind movement after independence which showed concern about environment. This movement is first movement which shows direct people participation in mass level.
Question 2 : State any two main demands of the Narmada Bachao Aandolan.
Answer : Sardar Sarovar project was a multipurpose dam project under which many dams were planned to be constructed. It was proposed to be constructed on Narmada river and its tributaries flowing through three states Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
But a movement called Narmada Bachao Aandolan was launched to save Narmada. It opposed the construction of dam and the nature of development was also questioned.
Two major dams were to be constructed under the project. They were Sardar Sarovar project (Gujarat) and Narmada Sagar project (Madhya Pradesh).
Due to the following reasons, this project was criticised:
(i) The project was criticised by many environmentalist and people who were supposed to suffer out of it. The question of their rehabilitation came prior to the minds 245 villages were estimated to get submerged in those three states.
(ii) Narmada Bachao Aandolan’s activists claimed that the local people’s right were sacrificed for the sake of benefits of others in which they had no profit.
They also question the decision-making process that go in the making of these projects and insist that local communities should also have a say in the making of these projects. Dispute between local people and government continued for a long time.
Question 3 : Describe any two issues which made the Anti-arrack movement as a women’s movement.
Answer : Two issues which made the anti-arrack movement as a women’s movement are:
(i) Domestic violence was a major issue raised by these women. Unequal treatment and injustice to women was common all over the country.
(ii) Agitation raised on a local issue in a small village reached to urban areas with the beginning of the protest, the demands intensified. Women asked or reservation in political offices and some time 73rd and 74th amendments were introduced to the Construction granting reservation to women in local politics.
Question 4 : Describe any four demands made by Bhartiya Kisan Union after the 1980.
Answer : Following were the major demands put forward by the BKU (any four):
(i) Higher government floor price for sugarcane and wheat.
(ii) Abolition of restriction on the inter state movement of farm produce.
(iii) Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates.
(iv) Waiving of repayment due to loans to farmers.
(v) Provision of a government pension for farmers.
Question 5 : Highlight the importance of popular movements.
Answer : Importance of popular movements are:
(i) Effective representation of groups and their demands are ensured by popular movements.
(ii) The possibilities of deep social conflicts are reduced by popular movements.
(iii) Popular movements make the people aware of the their rights.
(iv) Popular movements help people having similar problems, demands and expectations came closer.
Question 6 : Where and when was the ‘Dalit panthers’ formed? Describe any three of its activities?
Answer : Dalit panthers was a militant organisation formed by Dalit Youth in Maharashtra in 1972. Dalit Panthers came up as a part of the assertions by Dalits. Dalits were facing atrocities and humiliation by upper sections of society from a long time.
In early 1970s, the first generation Dalit graduates, decided to protect against such unaccepted behaviour of society towards them and their main activities were as follows.
(i) They demanded several things which were guaranteed to them, but never implemented such as policy of reservation, guaranteed to them never came into implementation effectively. Their prior demand was to implement those policies which were formed for their betterment by government.
(ii) After the prohibition of practice of untouchability by government such practices did not vanish from the society. Dalits continued to face humiliation. Their demand was to eradicate such evil practices.
(iii) Dalit’s women were worst victim of such activities by upper caste men. Dalit panthers seeked help of Republican Party of India, but remained marginalized.
Dalit panthers decided to gain support of masses, so as to make their voice strong enough. The larger ideological agenda of the panthers was to destroy the caste system and to build an organisation of all oppressed sections.
Question 7 : “It is not enough to have representative form of democracy. It is necessary to participate in parlous movements to make democracy a success.” Do you agree with this view?
Answer : Yes, I agree with the statement because:
(i) The popular movements are integral part of democracy.
(ii) Effective representation of groups and their demands are ensured by popular movements.
(iii) The possibilities of deep and social conflicts are reduced by popular movements.
(iv) Popular movements make the people aware of their rights.
(v) Popular movements help people having similar problems, demands and expectations to come closer.
Question 8 : What are popular movements? Explain any three issues related to women which brought social awareness amongst them.
Answer : When group of people with a common ideology who try together to achieve certain general goals is called popular movement. Three issues related to women which brought social awareness amongst them are:
(i) Issue of gender discrimination. These issues were very complicated in nature.
(ii) Issue of domestic violence. The custom of dowry, sexual abuse at work and public places.
(iii) Issues of sexual violence. These issues are highlighted by different women movements in order to bring gender equality.
6 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What are popular movements. Describe any six advantages of popular movements.
Answer : When a group of people with a common ideology who try together to achieve certain general goals is called popular movement. The advantages or lessons learnt from people movements are:
(i) These movements help us to understand better the nature of democratic politics.
(ii) These movements came up to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as integral part of our democratic politics.
(iii) These movements represented new social groups whose economic and social grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics.
(iv) Popular movements ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands.
(v) Popular movements suggested new forms of active participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
(vi) Some of the critics of these movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision-making and destabilise the routines of democracy.
Question 2 : Describe any six factors which made the farmers’ movement run by Bhartiya Kisan Union as the most successful popular movement.
Answer : The well established farmers of Western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana agitated against the rising price of electricity. They later formed Bhartiya Kisan Union (BKU). The BKU was one of the leading farmers organisation.
Six factors which made the farmers movement run by Bhartiya Kisan Union as the most successful popular movement are :
(i) The BKU organised rallies, demonstrations, sit-ins and Jail Bharo Aandolan.
(ii) The success of BKU lies in the method of organisation adopted by it. The BKU used the caste linkage to mobilise the people.
(iii) BKU was an informal organisation but it sustained for a long time and remained stable because it was based on clan network.
(iv) BKU was a non-political organisation , but operated as pressure group in politics with its strength of sheer numbers.
(v) The organisation across states did manage to get some of their economic demands accepted.
(vi) It encouraged individuals to raise themselves to political powers independently.
So, that party in power could be challenged and their demands could be better accepted.
Question 4 : What is Sardar Sarovar Project? Which benefits are expected to be if the project becomes successful? Also state the issues of relovation and rehabilitation associated with it.
Answer : The answer is provided in earlier questions.
Question 5 : Describe the issues associated with the anti-arrack movements in Andhra Pradesh which drew the attention of the entire country.
Answer : Anti-arrack movement : It is a movement against consumption of local alcohol called arrack by the men in families. Women were the major participants as well as victim of this movement. The ill effects of arrack ruined the family economy and heavy burden of domestic violence was borne by women. Women gathered from nearby villages and realised that they were not the only one who were going through this misery. The condition was same in other families too.
They decided to discuss the issues outside their houses. They made it a public issue. Personal problem became public. It was the first time when private matters of families were discussed publicly.
Question 6 : Describe the journey of the movement for Right to Information which ultimately culminated into an act i.e. RTI Act, 2005.
Answer : The journey of the movement for Right to Information which culminated into an act i.e. RTI Act, 2005 is following:
(i) The movement started in 1990, when a mass based organisation called the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) in Rajasthan took the initiative in demanding records of famine relief work and accounts of labourers.
(ii) The demand was first raised by Shim Tehsil in a very backward region of Rajasthan.
(iii) In 1994 and 1996, the MKSS organised Jan Sunwais or Public Hearings, where the administration was asked to explain its stand in public.
(iv) In 1996 MKSS formed National Council for People’s Right to information in Delhi to raise RTI to the status of a national campaign.
(v) In 2002, a weak freedom of information Act was legislated but never came into force.
(vi) In 2004, RTI Bill was tabled and received presidential assent in June 2005.
Question 7 : Suppose you are an important leader of the farmers’ agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.
Answer : As a farmer’ leader, I will present the following three demands on behalf of the farmers, before government:
(i) Insurance to crop : Indian agriculture is dependent on monsoon, which is unpredictable and risky. The nature of Indian climate pose high risk to crops. In that cases, I will demand to give insurance to crops.
(ii) Easy availability of loans : Throughout the history of Indian agriculture the farmers have remained a subject to indebtedness. I will demand the government to make easy provisions of agricultural loans at low interest.
(iii) Minimum support price : After harvest farmers get non-profitable price in local markets. I will demand the government to give assistance by giving them minimum support price.
Question 8 : What is meant by Chipko movement? When did it start and where? What is the significance of this movement in the conservation of the environment?
Answer : In 1973, a village of Uttar Pradesh now Uttarakhand protested against the commercial logging of trees. They were against the government’s permission given to outsiders on the trees grown on their land. To prevent trees from cutting people used to hug them and this unique way of protest became popular as Chipko movement.
It spread to the nearby villages of Uttarakhand when forest department refused locals to use ash trees for making agricultural tools and granted the same piece of land to a commercial sports manufacturer. Thus, the movement intensified.
Question 9 : Mention any three social movements of India. Explain their main objectives.
Answer : Three social movements of India and their main demands are :
(i) Dalit Panthers : Dalit Panthers was a militant organisation of the Dalit youth which was formed in Maharashtra in 1972.
(a) To destroy the caste system.
(b) To build an organisation of all oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers along with Dalits.
(ii) Bhartiya Kisan Union : It was an organisation of farmers from Western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana regions.
(a) To demand higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
(b) To demand abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce, guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable prices etc.
(iii) Narmada Bachao Movement : It was a movement to save Narmada river and against construction of dam on it.
(a) To oppose the construction of dams.
(b) To question the nature of ongoing developmental projects in the country.