1 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Name the three social and political regions of the Northern most State of India.
Answer : Three social and political regions of the Northern most State of India are -Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
Question 2 : Justify that ‘Regionalism is not as dangerous as communalism’.
Answer : Regionalism is dangerous in a specific region while communalism is dangerous for whole nation.
Question 3 : Why were the seven small states created in North-East India?
Answer : The isolation of the region, its complex social character and its backwardness compared to other parts of the country are responsible for creation of seven small states in North-East India.
Question 4 : Why do some people feel that Article 370 should be revoked?
Answer : Such people believe that special status of the state conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the state with India.
Question 5 : Which students’ group led the anti foreigner movement in Assam?
Answer : Organisation of Assam which led the movement against foreign nationals in 1979 is All Assam Students’ Union (AASU).
Question 6 : The states of which region of India are referred to as ‘seven sisters’?
Answer : The seven sister states are a region in North-Eastern India, comprising the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
Question 7 : Mention any one point of agreement included in the Rajiv Gandhi-Longowal Accord.
Answer : It was agreed the Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
Question 8 : Shetkari Sangathan and Rajya Sangha belonged to which two respective states?
Answer : Shetkari Sangathan and Rajya Sangha belong to Maharashtra and Karnataka respectively.
Question 9 : Differentiate between regionalism and separatism.
Answer : Regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the national or normative interests of a particular region or group of regions. Whereas Separatism is the advocacy or practice of separation of a certain group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion or gender.
Question 10 : What is meant by ‘Punjab Accord’ of 1985?
Answer : Punjab Accord was a step towards bringing normalcy to Punjab. This accord was with Harchand Singh Longowal, the then President of Akali Dal.
Question 11 : What is the main reason behind the secessionist movement in the North-East India?
Answer : Main reason behind the secessionist movements in North-East is the isolation of the region and the backwardness of the states compared to other parts of the country.
Question 12 : Correct the following statement and rewrite.
‘Goa was not merged with Maharashtra as the Central Government did not want it’.
Answer : Goa was not merged with Maharashtra as the people of Goa did not want it.
Question 13 : ‘Operation Blue Star’ was an army action carried out against militancy in 1989 executed in Golden Temple, Amritsar.
2 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What will happen if the regions are not given their due share in decision-making at the national level?
Answer : If the regions are not given their due share in decision-making at the national level, there will be tension and conflict between regions and union government which may result in collapse of political and electoral process of country.
Question 2 : How far did the Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord succeed in bringing normalcy in Punjab?
Answer : The Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord or the Punjab Accord, was a step towards bringing normalcy to Punjab, however, peace did not come easily or immediately. The cycle of violence continued nearly for a decade.
Question 3 : Why and how did the Mizo movement for succession gain popular support?
Answer : The movement for succession in the Mizo hills area gain popular support due to the following reasons:
(i) Some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and therefore did not belong to the Indian Union.
(ii) The movement for succession gained popular support only after the Assam Government failed to respond adequately to the great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills.
(iii) The Mizo’s anger led to the formation of the Mizo National Front (MNF) under the leadership of Laldenga.
After a long struggle the problem was resolved by a peace agreement, singed between Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga. As per this accord Mizoram was granted full-fledged statehood with special powers and MNF agreed to give up secessionist struggle.
Question 4 : What was ‘Operation Blue Star’? Why did it hurt the sentiments of the Sikh Community?
Answer : ‘Operation Blue Star’ was an army action against militancy in 1989 which was executed in Golden Temple, Amritsar.
In this operation, the government could successfully flush out the militants, but it damaged the historic temple and deeply hurt the sentiments of the Sikhs.
Question 5 : How was the reorganisation of North-East India completed and by when?
Answer : The reorganisation of North-East India was completed by 1970s. In 1972 Meghalaya was carved out of Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura became separate states in the same year.
Question 6 : What does the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 mean?
Answer : Two provision which reflect special status to Jammu and Kashmir are:
(i) Articles 370 and 371 of Indian Constitution give greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir. The state has its own Contitution.
(ii) All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the state, law passed by the Parliament apply to Jammu and Kashmir only if the state agrees.
Question 7 : Highlight any two issues that dominate the politics of North-East India.
Answer : After independence two issues that dominate the politics of North-East India are:
(i) Demands for autonomy
(ii) Movement for secessions and opposition to outsiders.
Question 8 : Name the original states from which the following states were carved out
Answer : (i) From Assam in 1972.
Question 9 : Describe the outcome of the ‘Assam Accord’ of 1985.
Answer : According to ‘Assam Accord’ of 1985, those foreigners who migrated into Assam during and after Bangladesh war and since, were to be identified and deported.
Question 10 : ‘Regionalism does not imply separatism.’ Explain.
Answer : Regionalism is the theory or practice of emphasising the regional characteristics of local issues. Separatism advocates separation, specially existential or political separation.
4 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What was the main outcome of the Rajiv Gandhi Longowal Accord in July 1985?
Answer : The outcomes of Rajiv Gandhi-Longowal Accord were:
(i) Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
(ii) A separate commission will be set-up to resolve the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
(iii) A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
(iv) Compensation and better treatment of those affected by the militancy in Punjab.
(v) Withdrawal of the Application of Armed Forces Special Powers Act in Punjab.
Question 2 : Explain the rise of political violence in the North-Eastern part of India.
Answer : Following reasons are responsible for the rise of political violence in the North-Eastern part of India:
(i) The large scale migration into North-East gave rise to a special kind of problem that pitted the ‘local’ communities against people who were seen as ‘outsiders’ or migrants.
(ii) These latecomers, either from India or abroad are seen as encroachers on scarce resources like land and potential competitors to employment opportunities and political power.
(iii) These issues have taken political and sometimes violent form in many states of the North-East.
Question 3 : What lessons can we draw from the feeling of alienation in some parts of India?
Answer : Lessons learnt from the feeling of alienation in some parts of India are following:
(i) Regional aspirations are very much a part of democratic politics. Expression of regional issues is not an abnormal phenomenon.
(ii) The best way to respond to regional aspirations is through democratic negotiations rather than through suppression.
(iii) Regional imbalance in economic development contributes to the feeling of regional discrimination.
6 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What are the lessons we have learnt from regional aspirations and their accommodation as an integral part of democratic politics? Describe.
Answer : Since, 1980s, problems became ore noticeable and tension and turmoil created and tested the strength of democracy to deal with aspirations of diverse groups.
Following lessons that we have been learnt are:
(i) It is not possible to keep away regional aspirations in a democracy.
(ii) The best way to deal with regional aspirations is through democratic negotiation not by armed suppression.
(iii) Having democratic structure is not sufficient, share in power at the state level by regional groups and parties is also important.
(iv) The fourth lesson deals with economic development of various states/region imbalance in development could raise the feeling of discrimination.
(v) The final lesson is the farsightedness of Constitution makers who put effective provisions in Constitution for dealing with the question of diversity. The federal structure adopted by India is flexible in nature. Each state is vested with same powers and special powers are granted to Jammu and Kashmir and North-Eastern states.
Question 2 : Describe the process of Goa’s liberation and becoming a state of the Indian Union.
Answer : The process of Goa’s liberation and becoming a state of the Indian Union are following:
(i) Despite the end of British Empire from India in 1947, Portuguese refused to withdraw from the territories of Goa, Diu and Daman.
(ii) After India’s independence, the Indian Government tried very patiently to persuade the Portuguese government to withdraw.
(iii) After a strong popular movement in December, 1961, the Government of India sent the army which liberated it. Goa, Diu and Daman became Union Territory.
(iv) In 1967, an ‘Opinion Poll’ was held in Goa and the majority voted in favour of remaining outside Maharashtra.
(v) Thus, Goa continued as a Union Territory. Finally, in 1987, Goa became a state of the Indian Union.
Question 3 : What is the social and political composition of Jammu and Kashmir? Describe the roots of ‘Kashmir Issue’ which compelled the Indian Government to maintain autonomy in this state.
Answer : Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh are three social and political regions comprised in Jammu and Kashmir. They are as follows:
(i) Kashmir region : Population comprises mostly Muslims. The Kashmir valley is heart of it, Kashmiri language is prominent language of the region Hindus are minority.
(ii) Jammu region : It is a mix of foot hills and plains. Consists of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. Various languages are spoken.
(iii) Ladakh region : It is mountainous and sparsely populated. Population consists of equal number of Muslims and Buddhists.
When Hari Singh (the then king of Jammu and Kashmir) agreed to merge Jammu and Kashmir with India in 1948. Special status was given to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370.
This article provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir which provide it autonomy in many areas. No law of Indian Parliament will be effective unless it is approved by the State Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir. This special provision were given by Indian Government in pursuing the path of democratic negotiation to solve the Kashmir issue.
Question 4 : Briefly describe the story of Sikkim from the time of India’s independence to its merger with India.
Answer : The story of Sikkim from the time of India’s independence to its merger with India is following:
(i) At the time of independence, Sikkim was a ‘protectorate’ of India. It meant that while it was not a part of India, it was also not a fully sovereign country.
(ii) Sikkim’s monarch was Chogyal who was unable to deal with the democratic aspirations of the people.
(iii) The Chogyal was seen as perpetuating the rule of a small elite from the minority Lepch Bhutia community.
(iv) The anti Chogyal leaders of both the communities sought and got support from the Government of India.
(v) The first assembly of Sikkim which was elected in 1974 were swept by Sikkim Congress and it sought the status of ‘associate state’ and the in April 1975 passed a resolution asking for full integration with India.
(vi) After an organised referendum Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union.
Question 5 : Describe the role of EV Ramasami ‘Pariyar’ in the Dravid movement and formation of Dravida Kazhagam (DK). Why did the DK get split and enter into politics as DMK?
Answer : Dravidian movement was a regional movement under leadership of EV Ramasami Naickar also known as Periyar.
He played following role in this movement:
(i) He was a strong supporter of theism and was famous for his anti-caste struggle and rediscovery of Dravidian identity.
(ii) Initially he was a worker of the Congress Party and started the self-respect movement in 1925.
(iii) He led the anti-Brahmin movement and worked for the justice party and later founded Dravidar Kazhagam.
(iv) He opposed to Hindi and domination of North India.
(v) He propounded the thesis that North Indians and Brhamins are Aryans.
The DK split because the Dravidian movement initially spoke in terms of the whole of South India, however, lack of support from other states limited the movement to Tamil Nadu. The DMK made its entry into politics with a three pronged agitation in 1953-54.
Question 6 : Describe any two secessionist movements of North-East India.
Answer : Two secessionist movement of North-East India are Assam movement and Mizo movement.
The Assam, North-Eastern state had seen many changes since independence. States like Mizoram, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh had been carved out of it.
The Assamese had a unique culture of their own. But the culture was suspected to be harmed because of the huge number of immigrants from Bangladesh.
To tackle those immigrants and to avoid the mixing of the culture with those of outsiders they launched a movement popularly known as the Assam movement.
Yes, the Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. It was justified from the following arguments:
(i0 The outsiders had a deep effect on the local economy. The Assam was suffering from poverty and unemployment because of these immigrants.
(ii) In spite of being a part of India, Assam was isolated and developmental work was not as functional as they were in any other part of the country.
(iii) Economy was already at stake but the immigrants made it even worse. Assamese had to face dual problem of cultural preservation and economic degradation. All Assam student union formed in 1979 led a struggle against these immigrates in order to save their culture.
(iv) Question of cultural pride and economic development was the major areas of concern. AASU asked Central Government to flush out the immigration and after a long struggle Central Government successfully deported the immigrants and the economic condition of the region was taken into concern.
After independence, the Mizo hills area was made an autonomous district within Assam. Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and therefore did not belong to the Indian Union. When Assam Government failed to respond adequately to the great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills. Mizo’s anger led to formation to the Mizo National Front (MNF) under the leadership of Laldenga.
In 1966, the MNF started campaign for separate state. Two decade long battle between the Mizo insurgents and Indian army started. The MNF fought a guerilla war and got support from Pakistan and China. Indian army had to take repressive measure.
It was only through the Rajiv-Longowal Accord in 1986 peace returned with the formation of fulfilled Mizoram state.
Question 7 : “All regional movements need not lead to the separatist demands”. Explain the statement by giving suitable examples.
Answer : Regional movement need to be understood in the light of democratic politics. Expression of regional issue is not an abnormal phenomena. Even in smaller countries regional aspirations sprang up. It does not mean that these regional movements want to create a more autonomous state within the framework of parent company.
The best example of Regional movement could be drawn from our country only. Demand for autonomy arose when the non-Assamese felt that the Assam Government was imposing Assamese language on them protest raised up in whole state and leaders of various tribal communities wanted to separate from Assam. Eastern India Tribal Union was formed which later transformed into All Party Hill Leader Conference in 1960.
The demand of separate state picked up momentum and instead of a single state several states were carved out by Central Government at different points of time. Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh is carved out of Assam. So, regional demands need not lead to separatist demands in normal cases.