Physical Features and The Climate of India

1 mark Questions

Q1. Name the type of climate prevailing over India

Answer: The tropical monsoon is a type of climate which prevails over India

Q2. Mention any two factors responsible for the tropical monsoon climate

Answer: Following two factors are responsible for the tropical monsoon

Climate :

(i) Shifting of ITCZ over Ganga plain in summer season.

(ii) Presence of the Himalayas as a barrier against monsoonal winds

Q3. Give reasons for the following.

Jaipur has a higher annual range of temperature than Mumbai

Answer: Jaipur has a higher annual of temperature because it is far from the sea and is located near the desert area which has higher range of temperature. Mumbai is close to the sea and its moderating influence causes it, to have a low range of temperature.

Q4. Give a reason for the following.

Western coastal plains receive more rainfall than the Eastern coastal

Answer: Western coastal plains receive more rainfall because the Western Ghats check the rain bringing South-West monsoon winds to cause heavy rainfall. That is Western coastal plains lie in the windward side.

Q5. Which parallel of latitude divides India into the Northern and Southern halves ?

Answer: 231/2® N (i.e., Tropic of Cancer ) divides India into the Northern and Southern halves.

Q6. Name two important features of the Indian monsoon.

Answer: The two important features of the Indian monsoon are as follows :

(i) High rainfull in short duration.

(ii) Rainfall is mainly relief origin i.e., orographic.

2 Marks Questions

Q7. Mention the different sources of rain in Punjab and Tamil Nadu during the winter season.

Answer: Punjab gets rain fall by temperate cyclones or western disturbances whereas Tamil Nadu gets rainfall by the North-East monsoon winds.

Q8. State the benefits that are derived from the local winds that blow in summer in the following states.

(i) kerala

(ii) West Bengal

Answer: (i) local winds or Mango showers help in blooming of coffee and cherries as well as ripening of mangoes.

(ii) Local wind in West Bengal is called Kal Baisakhi. This is good for the growth of tea in Assam and rice and jute in West Bengal.

Q9. Name any two types of cyclonic systems that affect India and two areas that receive rainfall from these system.

Answer: Two cyclonic system by which India is affected, are as follows :

(i) Temperate Cyclones Regions affected are North-West India (Punjab, Haryana).

(ii) Tropical Cyclones Regions affected are Eastern coast of India (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and West Bengal).

Q10. Give two important characteristics of South-West monsoon rainfall.

Answer: Two important characteristics of South-West monsoon rainfall are as follows :

(i) It is orographic in nature.

(ii) It is uncertain in amount and time.

Q11. What is the direction of the summer monsoon? Why?

Answer: The direction of the summer monsoon is from the South-West to North-East, because after crossing equator, monsoonal winds get deflected towards their rights in the Northern Hemisphere.

Q12. Give two important characteristics of the summer monsoon rainfall in India.

Answer: The two important characteristics of the summer monsoon rainfall in India are:

(i) It is erratic in nature.

Q13. Mumbai received rainfall in the summer season, while chennai receives rainfall from October to December . Why?

Answer: Mumbai received rainfall in the summer season because it receives rainfall from South-West monsoon, whereas Cheenai receives rainfall in the winter season from the North-East monsoon.

Q14. ‘Rainfall in India is orographic in nature’. Give an example with reference to the distribution of rainfall and the effect of relief on its distribution.

Answer: Rainfall in India is nature. Orographic rainfall is a type of rainfall in which moisture containing winds uplift with the help of mountain and shed its moisture on the windward side of mountain. When these winds reach the leeward side, winds have no or less moisture. For instance Western ghats which lie parallel to the western coast are in a suitable direction to check the rain bearing monsoon winds. The western slope of the Western ghats that faces the winds receives heavy rainfall (i.e. more than 200cm).

The leeward side of the Western ghats is not able to do so as the winds have lost their moisture and are descending on that slope. This region receives low rainfall.

Q15. Answer: mention two main features of the Indian monsoon.

The Indian monsoon is characterized by two main features which are as follows:

(i) Alternate dry and wet spells.

(ii) Reversal of winds according to the season.

Q16. Name the source of winter rain in Tamil Nadu. How does Tamil Nadu benefit from it?

Answer: North-East monsoon which takes moisture from Bay of Bengal is the source of winter rain in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu benefits from it, because it is the best suited for rice and coffee cultivation.

Q17. What type of climate is experienced in the Northern plains of India? State one main characteristic of this type of climate.

Answer: Northern plains of India experience continental type of climate. Its main characteristic is high range of temperature i.e., it is extremely hot in summer and extremely cold in winter.

Q18. State the climatic significance of the Himalayas to the people of South Asia.

Answer: the Himalayas act as a barrier to the South Asian people from the cold winds blowing from Central Asia and thus acts as a climatic divide. They also act as a barrier to prevent the monsoon winds moving further towards North.

Q19. Name the area in India which receives rainfall from the Western disturbances. State the importance of this rainfall.

Answer: North-West of India receives rainfall from the Western disturbance, which is very important for the cultivation of wheat and barley.

Q20. Along which meridian of India is the Indian Standard Time calculated? If the Indian cricket team is playing at Lords (England) at 9:30 am, what time will it be in India?

Answer: 821/2® E is the Standard Meridian of India and on its basis the Indian Standard Time is calculated, which is 51/2® hrs ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. At 9:30 am at Lords (England) the time in India will be 3:00 pm (9:30 + 5:30).

Q21. State the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India. Which important line of latitude passes through the middle of India?

Answer: India’s latitude extent is from 8®4’ North to 37®6’ North and longitudinal extent is from 68®7’ East. 231/2® N (Tropic of Cancer) passes through the middle of India.

Q22. Why are there great variations in the climate of the Indian sub-continent?

Answer: India’s vast longitudinal and latitudinal extent and various topographical features are the reasons for great variations in the climate of the Indian sub-continent.

Q23. Name any two local winds, which blow in India and write briefly about each.

Answer: The Loo are hot, dry and dusty winds blowing during May and June in the Northern plains. In West Bengal localized thunderstorms accompanied with violent winds, torrential downpours and sometimes hail also occur. These winds are called Kal Baisakhi.

Q24. Explain why?

(i) Mumbai is warmer than Kanpur in December?

(ii) Account for the winter rain in Northern India.

Answer: (i) Mumbai has the moderating influence of the sea, which makes it warmer, whereas Kanpur is very far from the sea and has a continental type of climate.

(ii) The Westerly disturbances originating in the Mediterranean Sea are responsible for the winter rain in Northern India.

3 Marks Questions

Q25. Mention a geographical reason for each of the following:

(i) Patna receives heavier rain than Delhi.

(ii) Western Rajasthan receives no rain from the Arabian Sea branch of the South West monsoon winds

(iii) Mangalore is not cold even in the month of December.

Answer:

(i) It is because Patna receives rainfall from the South-West monsoon winds (i.e. Bay Bengal current), but when these winds move towards West their moisture content gradually decrease thus, causing less in Delhi.

(ii) Western Rajasthan lies in the shadow of the Aravalli hills and the winds runs parallel to these hills without any obstacles, thus, causing no rain in Western Rajasthan.

(iii) Mangalore lies on the Western coastal plains, where the influence of the sea moderates the climate. Hence, it is not cold even in the month of December.

Q26. Give reasons for the followings:

(i) When the Malabar coast is receiving heavy rainfall in July, the Tamil Nadu coast is comparatively dry.

(ii) The Northern Plains of India have a continental type of climate.

(iii) Central Maharashtra receives little rainfall.

Answer:

(i) The reason for this is that Tamil Nadu lies in rain shadow region of Arabian Sea branch and the Bat of Bengal is parallel to the coast.

(ii) Continental type of climate occurs in Northern Plains of India because it is away from the moderating influence of the sea.

(iii) Central Maharashtra receives little rainfall because it lies in the rain shadow region of Western Ghats.

Q27. Study the climatic data given below and answer the question that follow

 

(i) Calculate the annual rainfall experienced by the station.                                                                       

(ii) Suggest a name of this station, giving a reason for your answer.

(iii) Name the season during which the rainfall is highest.

Answer:

(i)Annual rainfall experienced by the station is 114.3 cm.

(ii) Chennai is the name of the station as it is receiving most of its rain in the winter season. Also, there is not much variation in the temperature, indicating a coastal location.

(iii) Rainfall is highest in winter season.

Q28. Give geographical reason for the followings:

(i) Even in summer Shimla is cooler than Delhi.

(ii) The Northern Plains of India do not freeze in winter.

(iii) Kochi has a lesser annual range of temperature than Agra.

Answer:

(i) The temperature decreases with height at a rate of 1®C for every 165m. As Shimla is on the hills, it is cooler than Delhi in summer.

(ii) The presence of Himalaya does not allow the cold winds from Central Asia to enter India. So that, Northern plains of India do not freeze in winter.

(iii) Kochi is located on the sea coast and its temperature is moderated by the sea, whereas Agra is far away from the sea. Therefore, Kochi has a lesser annual range of temperature than Agra.

Q29. Study the climate data given below and answer the questions that follow:

(i) Calculate the mean annual temperature.

(ii) What is the total rainfall during the monsoon season?

(iii) Does the station have a maritime or a continental climate? Give a reason for your answer.

Answer:                                                                                                                                                                                              

(i) Mean annual temperature is 28.0®C.

(ii) Total rainfall during the monsoon season (June to October) is 200.6 cm.

(iii) The station has a maritime type of climate because it has less temperature variature (from 30.4®C to 23.8®C).

Q30. Give a reason to explain why?

(i) The coastal areas of India do not experience a significant variation in temperature between summer and winter months?

(ii) The annual rainfall in Rajasthan is less than 25 cm.

(iii) The Coromandel coast gets most of its rain during the winter season.

Answer:

(i) The coastal areas of India do not experience temperature variation due to moderating influence of the sea.

(ii) The annual rainfall in Rajasthan is low because it lies in the rain shadow of the Aravalli hills for the Bay of Bengal branch of the South-West monsoon and the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon runs parallel to the Aravalli hills, thus, not giving any rain to Rajasthan.

(iii) Coromandel coast gets its rain during the winter season due to the retreating monsoon, which takes moisture from Bay of Bengal and strikes at the coast.

Q31. Study the climatic data given below and the questions that follow:

(i) Name the driest month.

(ii) Calculate the annual rainfall experienced by the station.

(iii) What is the annual range of temperature?                                                     

Answer:

(i) March is the driest month.

(ii) 129.2 cm is the annual rainfall experienced by the station.

(iii) The annual range of temperature is 20.4 to 32.5®C.

Q32. Give reasons for the followings

(i) The North-East monsoons bring almost no rain to most of India.

(ii) The mango showers are beneficial local winds.

(iii) The latitudinal extent of India is responsible for the variation in the climatic conditions which prevail in the country.

Answer:

(i) This is because North-east monsoon blows from land to sea, hence not carrying any moisture.

(ii) ‘Mango showers’ are beneficial local winds because the rainfall which they bring is important for the growth of mango, tea and coffee plants in kerala and the coasts of Karnataka.

(iii) India’s latitudinal extent is from 8®4’ N to 37®6’ N. This vast latitudinal extent is responsible for the climate change and controls the climate all over India. This covers two Climatic Zones, the Temperate Zone (Northern part of India with a Continental Climate) and the Tropical Zone (Southern part of India with a Tropical Climate).

Q33. Study the climatic data provided below and answers the questions that follow:

(i) Calculate the annual range of temperature of station B.

(ii) Calculate the annual rainfall of station A.                                                                                            

(iii) Presuming that both the station are located in West India, state giving a reason as to, which of the two lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats .

Answer:

(i) The annual range of temperature of station B is 24.4® to 30®C and difference between maximum and minimum annual temperature is 5.6®C (30.0-24.4)

(ii) The annual rainfall of station A is 67.4 cm.

(iii) Station ‘B’ is at the windward side of the Western Ghats as it is getting 50.2 and 61 cm of rainfall months of the June and July, whereas station ‘A’ gets only 11.4 and 16.7 cm of rainfall in the same months, which shows that it lies on the leeward side of the mountain.

Q34. Given below is the climatic data of station. Study the table answer the question that follow:

(i) Calculate the annual rainfall experienced by the station.

(ii) What is the annual range of temperature?

(iii) Name the wettest month.

Answer:

(i) 128.7 cm is annual rainfall experienced by the station.

(ii) The annual range of temperature is 20.4® to 32.5® C and difference between maximum and minimum annual temperature is 12.1®C (32.5-20.4).

(iii) The wettest month is November.

Q35. Give a reason for each of the followings:

(i) Patna gets a heavier rainfall than Varanasi.

(ii) The Arabian Sea branch sea of South-West monsoon does not shed any moisture in Western Rajasthan.

(iii) India has varied climatic conditions.

Answer:

(i) It is because Patna receives rainfall from the South–West monsoon winds (Bay of Bengal current), but when these winds move towards Varanasi, which lies to the West, their moisture content decreases, causing less rainfall there.

(ii) The Arabian sea branch of the South-West monsoon does not shed any moisture in Western Rajasthan as the Aravalli mountain range runs parallel to the direction of the winds and does not allow them to pass into Western Rajasthan.

(iii) India has varied climatic conditions due to its large latitudinal and longitudinal extent and also distance of its various areas from the sea and their variable altitudes.

Q36. Study the climatic data provide below and the questions the below that follow:

(i) Calculate the annual range of temperature of station A. Suggest a reason why the range is a small one.

(ii) Which of the two stations has the lower temperature? Why?

(iii) Calculate the annual rainfall of station B.

Answer:

(i) The range of temperature of station A is 24.4® to 30.0®C and difference between the maximum and minimum temperature is 5.6®C (30-24.4). The difference of annual range of temperature is less. Probably the station is close to the sea.

(ii) Station B has the lower average temperature because this station experiences winter season, whereas there is no definite winter season in station A.

(iii) The annual rainfall of station B is 31.8 cm.

Q37. Given below is the climatic data of a station. Study the table and answer the questions that follow

(i) Calculate the annual range of temperature.

(ii) What is the total rainfall experienced by the station?

(iii) Which is the driest month?

Answer:

(i) Annual range of temperature is 13.7® to 33.5® C and difference between and maximum and minimum temperature is 19.8® C (33.5-13.7).

(ii) 67.4 cm is the total rainfall.

(iii) November is the driest month.

Q38. Study the table given below and answer the questions:

(i) Calculate the annual rainfall in station A.

(ii) What is the annual range of temperature in station B?

(iii) Name the winds that bring most of the rainfall to station B. State one reason for your answer.

Answer:

(i) 68.4 cm is the annual rainfall in station A.

(ii) The annual range of temperature in station B is 23.1® to 33.1® C and difference between maximum and minimum annual temperature is 10® C (33.1-23.1).

(iii) North-East winds bring most of the rainfall to station B. It receives maximum rainfall in winter season.

Q39. Study the data and then answer:

(i) Calculate the annual rainfall for station B.                                  

(ii) Which of the two stations is located away from the sea? Give a reason to justify your answer.

(iii) Calculate annual range of temperature for station A.

(iv)Which is the driest month in station A as shown in the table?

Answer:

(i) 128.7 cm is the annual rainfall for station B.

(ii) Station A is located away from the sea because the annual temperature variation is high and the annual rainfall is low.

(iii) The annual range of temperature of station A is 14.9® C to 33.9® C and difference between maximum and minimum temperature is 19®C (33.9-14.9).

(iv) December is the driest month in station A.

Q40. Study the climatic data given below and answer the questions that follow.

(i) Calculate the annual rainfall for station A.

(ii) What is the annual range of temperature at station B?                                                                          

(iii) In which hemisphere do you think station A lies?

(iv) Which of these stations has an equable climate?

Answer:

(i) Annual rainfall for station A is 67 cm.

(ii) The annual range of temperature of station B is 24.4® to 30.0®C and difference between maximum and minimum annual temperature is 5.6®C (30.0-24.4).

(iii) Station A lies in the Northern Hemisphere because the temperatures are high during April to September and low during November, December and January.

(iv) Station B has an equable climate because its temperature variation is lower than that of station A.

Q41. Answer the following questions:

(i) Name the place in India which receives the heaviest rainfall.

(ii) Name the states where Mawsynram is located.

(iii) Name the winds which are responsible for this heavy rainfall.

Answer:

(i) Mawsynram receives the heaviest rainfall in India.

(ii) Mawsynram is located in Meghalaya.

(iii) South-West monsoon winds are responsible for heavy rainfall.