1 Marks Question
Answer : A pregnant woman needs food rich in iron and calcium because:
(i) Iron is used for maintaining haemoglobin level to facilitate supply of nutrients to the foetus and newly formed tissues.
(ii) Calcium is required for the formation of bones and teeth of the foetus.
Answer : The energy requirement of a lactating mother more than that of a normal woman of the same age because of the need to produce milk to feed the baby.
Answer : Foods rich in zinc will:
(i) prevent miscarriage.
(ii) prevent foetal deformation.
Answer : Foods rich in zinc will:
(i) help in synthesis of DNA and RNA for both the woman and her infant.
(ii) help in improving the immune system of the woman and her infant.
Answer : Foods rich in calcium will:
(i) help in proper formation of bones of the foetus.
(ii) prevent muscle cramps, osteoporosis and decalcification of the woman’s bones.
Answer : In 2010, the changes suggested by ICMR in the daily needs of calories for a lactating woman were:
0-6 months 600 calories more than a normal woman
6-12 months 520 calories more than a normal woman
Answer : In 2019, the changes suggested by ICMT in the daily needs for pregnant women were:
(i) 350 calories more than a normal woman.
(ii) 1200 mg of calcium.
Answer : In 2010, the 2010, the changes suggested by ICMR in the daily needs for pregnant women were:
(I) It should be 50mg/day for vitamin C.
(ii) It should be 23g more than a normal woman, i.e. 78 g for protein.
Answer : While planning meals for a nine month old infant, the following points whould be kept in mind:
(i) The food should be soft, of smooth consistency and easy to swallow.
(ii) It should be easily digestible.
(iii) It must be rich in protein, iron and calcium, as well as being nutritionally balanced.
(iv) It should be according to the infant’s tastes.
Answer : The changes suggested in the lunch menu are given below:
|Kidney Beans||(i) Serve more kidney beans(for protein) with les s spices.
(ii) Add coriander leaves/palak leaves(for Vitamin A)
(iii) Add lemon( for Vitamin C)
|Rice||(iv) Add carrot(for vitamin A) and broccoli (for folic acid and zinc)|
|Dahi Bhalla||(v) Give more curd(for calcium)
(vi) Add fruits(for vitamin)
(vii) Add nuts(for protein, calcium and calories)
Answer : While planning meals for an adolescent girl, the following point should be kept in mind:
(i) The food items should be rich in protein, iron and calcium for he r physical development.
(ii) The meals should be nutritionally balanced.
(iii) The food items should be according to ther likes and tastes.
(iv) The food items should should be appealing to the eye and have an attractive appearance.
Answer : This meal is inadequate for a pregnant woman in her second trimester of pregnancy because there are nto enough proteins, minerals or vitamins it it for proper development of the foetus. Changes suggested in teh lunch meny for making the meal adequate for her are:
(i) Five more chick peas (thus giving more protein) with less spices and add coriander leaves or palak in it for irom, folic acid and vitamin A.
(ii) Add carrots (for vitamin A) and broccoli (for folic acid and zinc) to the rice.
Answer : The changes suggested in the lunch menu are:
(i) Add fresh pineapple pieces in the raita to increase vitamin C in the diet.
(ii) Add spinach in the dal to increase iron and vitamin A in the diet.
Answer : While planning meals for a two year old child the following points should be kept in mind:
(i) As children of this age are highly active,high calorie foods are needed.
(ii)To manage,high growth,high protein foods should be selected to meet the requirement of amino acids.
(iii) The child’s likes and dislikes for different foods should be considered.
(iv) High nutrition foods like boiled carrots, cut in small sizes for the child to handle comfortably should be given.
Answer : Example of selection of foods influenced by individual preferences and religion of the family are:
(i) Some families are adjusted to hot ans spicy foods. Some other families prefer steamed,bland food using very little oil or spices.
(ii) Families following Jainism religion will not use onions or garlic in their food.
Answer : Examples of selection of foods influenced by their availability and family traditions are:
(i) Curd and tomato puree are used in summer instead of winters when the price of tomatoes are high.
(ii) Families make traditional foods on some occasions like gujiya on holi.
Answer : Examples of influence of family’s religion in selection of foods are:
(i) Families following Jainism religion will not use onions or garlic in their food.
(ii)Hindu families will not eat beef.
Examples of influence of the region in selection of foods are:
(i) In North India, the staple food is chapattis because cereal is grown in abundance here.
(ii) In South India, the staple food are fish,rice,dosa ,idli which are made of rice because rice is grown in abundance here.
Answer : Four important factors which influence the meal planning of this family are:
(i) As Pradeep is a sedentary worker, his energy requirement will be moderate (about 2300 calories per day)
(ii) His old parents and grandmother will require soft and easily digestible foods. They need more calcium in their diet due to bones becoming weak in old age.
(iii) As they are living in a coastal area seafood and fish are cheaper and will so will be a regular constituent of their meals.
(iv) They may use coconut oil for cooking , as it is abundantly available in coastal areas.
Answer : Four important factors which influence the meal planning of this family are:
(i) As Rehman is farmer, meaning that he is a heavy worker, his energy requirement will be high(about 3500 calories per day)
(ii) His old mother will require soft and easily digestible foods. She will need more calcium in her diet due to bones becoming weak in old age.
(iii) As they are living in a rural area, the locally grown cereals,fresh vegetables and fruits are cheaper. Thus, they will be a regular constituent of their meals.
(iv) Though Rehman’s financial status is not mentioned , if we assume that Rehman’s purchasing power is limited , he will prefer inexpensive seasonal food items. Peanuts will substitute for almonds,soya bean for meat, jaggery for sugar etc.
Answer : A family has members of different age groups. It may comprise infants, school going children, adolescents,adults and the elderly. In addition, some female members may be pregnant or lactating mothers. Nutrition requirements of all these persons are different from each other.
Examples of the structure of a family affecting/influencing its meal planning are:
(i) If there are elderly people and infants in the family, they will require plain, non-spicy meals which are soft to chew and easy to digest.
(ii) If there are more male members in the family , we must add foods which have more satiety.
(iii) If any member of the family is sick , the family will plan meals according to the illness.
(iv) If the level of inactivity of the earning member is high(for instance, heavy workers), the family will plan meals which have high calorific content for them.
Answer : Meal planning means making a plan of meals with adequate nutrition for each family member of the family within the available resources. Examples of meal planning being influenced by resources are:
Economy Meals should be easily prepared and fast to cook (to save fuel). Further , seasonal and low cost food items should be used.
Physical Facilities The physical facilities available for preparing the meal determine the choice of foods. For instance,baked dishes can be made only if an oven is available.
Skills The person preparing the meals should be suitably skilled for this. For instance, of no person is available in the family to prepare an elaborate special dish, it is better for the family to take simple meals.
Buy in Bulk Buy food items in bulk to spend less, if you have suitable adequate storage space.
Answer : Meal planning means making a plan of meals with adequate nutrition for each family member of the family within the available resources and regional preferences. examples of saving resources while planning such meals are:
Regional Preferences If you are a North Indian, you will consume more of wheat , while those near coastal region , will consume more coconut,fish,etc. Similarly your staple food would be rice if you are South Indian.
Compare Price and Quality While buying food items, compare the price and quality of equivalent nutrition items. Buy seasonal vegetable and fruits as they will be fresh and also cheaper. Regionally available food items will also be cheaper.
Answer : Important functions of carbohydrates for infants are:
To provide Energy Carbohydrates in foods are broken down into small units of sugar. These small units get absorbed out of our digestive tract and enter our blood stream. This blood sugar is transported through blood streams to supply energy to one’s muscles and other tissues.
To give Proteins for Growth Carbohydrates also help in preventing the breakdown of proteins for energy and help in infant’s growth. If intake of carbohydrates is low, then body is forced to use up proteins for energy which is not good for own body. So carbohydrates are essential nutrient for an infant’s growth.
Answer : Important points to be kept in mind while modifying a meal plan for different individuals are :
(i) It should not deviate too much from the original meal.
(ii) It should be according to individual needs.
(iii) It should be acceptable to whom it is served
(iv) The likes and dislikes of the individual should be kept in mind.
Answer : Two dishes rich in calcium are paneer dishes and milk dishes. Important functions of calcium for school children are:
(i) Development and calcification of bones.
(ii) Development of permanent teeth to replace milk(temporary) teeth.
3 Marks Questions
Answer : Six factors that would influence the meal planning of this family are:
Nutritional Adequacy The nutritional requirements of all the family members should be fulfilled.For instance, two children in Raghav’s family will need more protein.
Age and Sex of the Family Members Dietary requirements of male adolescents and adult males are more than the female adolescents and adults.
Physical Activity The nutritional requirements are different depending on whether adults are sedentary, moderate or heavy workers. For instance, Raghav will be sedentary worker, Rahim is a heavy worker . Sunita is a heavy worker, being an athlete.
Economic Consideration Food items like full cream milk, cheese, meat, fruits,nuts etc. are expensive , which Raghav’s family can consume. Rahim’s family will prefer toned milk, seasonal and locally available fruits and vegetables, as they are less costly and at same time nutritious. In Sunita’s case , she will have to choose items suiting her aged parents, meaning that she will have to make meal which are soft and easily chewable, besides being easily digestible.
Time , Energy and Skills Meals can be elaborate with different dishes but the family can simplify them by cooking a simple but nutritious dish by combining all the ingredients.
Likes and Dislikes of Family Members It is better to change the form of some particularly nutritious food items, rather than omitting it completely. For instance, if the children in Raghav’s family do not like milk, give it in the form of curd,paneer etc.
Answer : Meal planning is making a plan of meals with adequate nutrients for every member of the family when funds are limited. Examples of planning meals with limited funds are:
Buy in Bulk Buy food items in bulk to spend less,if you have suitable adequate storage space.
Buy from Fair Price Shops Instead of buying from the open market, Buy food items from ration shops, super bazaars, cooperative store,etc. Vegetables and fruits may be bought from the mandi instead of from the doorstep vendor.
Compare Prices and Quality While buying food items, compare the price and quality of equivalent nutrition items. Buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. Regionally available food items will also be cheaper.
Utilise Leftover Food Make use of leftover food in the next meal by varying its appearance and /or adding another ingredient to make it appetizing.
Answer : Principles of meal planning are given below :
Adequate Nutrition It should fulfill the nutritional requirements of all the family members.
Flexibility It should adapt the meals according to the needs and preferences of individual family members.
Economy of Resources Meals planned should be easily prepared and fast to cook (to save fuel). Further, seasonal and low cost food items should be used.
Satiety The meals should give a feeling of fullness and satisfaction.
Attractive and Appealing Meals prepared in an appealing manner will lead to a pleasurable eating experience. The importance of these principles are to provide balanced and nutritious meals within the resources available which lead to a pleasant feeling.
4 Marks Questions
Answer : (i) Their selection of food for their daily meals will be based on :
(a) As they are living in a remote area, they will prefer items which are locally grown,as these will be cheaper than other food items bought from far off places.
(b) As They are following the Jain religion, they will be vegetarians and not use onions and garlic in their food.
(c) Their adolescent son will need higher calories in food besides more protein, calcium and iron for his growth needs.
(d) As two members of the family are males, they will also require larger quantities of all nutrients for satiety.
(ii) The following additional information is required for planning a balanced meal for the family:
Purhcasing Power They will buy low cost items if they have less money or vice-versa.
Father’s Occupation He will need more calories if he is heavy worker(like a miner), compared to a sedentary worker(like a person working in an office).
Climatic Conditions The foods selected will be cool food like buttermilk in summers and hot foods like soups in a cold climate.
Answer : The suggested modifications along with the reasons for each are given below:
|Family meal||Modication for lactating/pregnant woman||Reasons(what it provides)|
|Chana||Less spicy and add coriander leaves||Folic acid|
|More quantity of chana||Proteins,zinc|
|Bhature||Stuffed with grated paneer||Calcium ,protein|
|Knead dough with curd||Vitamins,proteins and calcium|
|Dahi||Add pineapple pieces and more curd||Vitamin C(revised ICMR), calcium|
|Bhalla||Stuff with cashew nuts||Zinc|
|Mango pickle||Replace pickle with amla chutney having less spices||Vitamin C|
|Add salad(carrots and tomatoes)||Vitamin A and C|
Answer : The choice of their food gets influenced as follows:
Culture Religious beliefs,regional preferences,tradition and customs of the people affect the selection of food items,for a meal. For instance, during navratras , people refrain from eating wheat flour,substituting it with buckwheat flour(kuttu ka atta) and rock salt instead of normal iodized salt.
Food Practices In many families , spices are roasted before grinding and using them.
Media People’s eating habit are highly influenced by advertisements that are displayed in or broadcasted by various channels of the media. This is particularly true for children and adolescents.
Peer Group The two adolescents in the family will like to try new food items with their friends and peers; later on, they may start liking those that their peers like.
Answer : Factors which would influence the choice of food for a family meal are:
Nutritional Needs These are different age groups, their physiological state(for instance, pregnant women and lactating mothers will require different food from other family members).,activity levels and their sex(for instance, males need more energy than females).
Climate In a warm climate , light and cool refreshing meals should be planned, whereas in cold climate, hot and spicy foods can be included.
Culture Religious beliefs, regional preferences, traditions and customs of people affect the selection of food items for a meal.
Availability of Resources The physical facilities available for and the skills of the person preparing the meals determine the choice of foods. Further, the time and energy spent in its preparation also determine this.
Purchasing Power Locally and seasonally available food items are normally selected as they are fresh and cheap .For people who are not well off, expensive food items will be substituted by inexpensive food items.
Health Status Depending on the health status of individual family members, food items may be changed. For instance, diabetics or people with hypertension will require different diet from normal person.
Individual Preferences Likes and dislikes of family members are usually considered while planning a family meal.
Influence of Media People’s eating habits are highly influenced by advertisements that are displayed in or broadcast by various channels of the media. This is particularly true for children and adolescents.
Answer : The four additional nutrients required by a mother during pregnancy and lactation are:
Energy A pregnant woman needs 350 calories more energy than a normal woman every day. A lactating mother requires 520 to 600 more calories every day.
Protein A pregnant woman needs 23 grams more protein than a normal woman every day. A lactating mother requires 13 to 19 grams more protein everyday.
Calcium A pregnant woman as well a lactating mother require 1200 milligrams of calcium everyday.
Other Items A pregnant woman needs additional iron,zinc,folic acid and vitamin A,C and D,and Riboflavin everyday. A lactating mother needs additional zinc,folic acid and vitamins A and C.
Suggested modifications in the meal are:
Dosa/IdliKnead the dough of Dosa/Idli with grated paneer, which gives more calcium and protein.
Sambar Use less condiments or chillies in sambar to avoid irritation.
Coconut Chutney Add mint or coriander to the chutney to add iron and vitamin A.
Additional Items Add a tomato and cucumber salad to give more vitamin C.
Answer : A pregnant woman in her second trimester needs 350 calories more energy than a normal woman every day because the growth of the uterus, growth of the foetus and other changes in her body. Besides, she should avoid strongly flavored foods. The modifications suggested in this meal are:
Potato and Tomato curry Make it less spicy and add coriander leaves.
Rice Make it more fiber rich by using brown rice instead of polished white rice.
Curd Add pineapple pieces and give more curd to add vitamins and calcium.
Additional Items Add Amla chutney with less spices and a tomato salad to add vitamin C.
Answer : Modifications we will carry out in this meal to suit the nutritional needs of a pregnant woman and the reasons to require these additional nutrients are:
(i) We will add any ingredient rich in iron (like mint leaves or anar) in the curd. Addtional iron is necessary for more production of haemoglobin required for giving nutrition to the foetus.
(ii)We will add any ingredient rich in folic acid(like methi) in the dough and the parathas. Additional folic acid is required for regeneration of blood cells,prevent anaemia and helping to reduce abnormalities in the foetus.
(iii) We will add besan,dal or any items rich in protein in the dough of the paratha. Additional proteins are necessary for the growth of the placenta,uterus and breast size.
(iv) We will add more calcium in her diet by giving her more curd. More calcium is needed for increased mineral absorption ,formation of bones of foetus and improved calcification of the woman bones and teeth.
Answer : Reasons for higher intake of calories and other nutrients by six year old children are:
(i) calories due to
(a) Increased physical activity.
(b) Increase in basal metabolic rate.
(ii) calcium due to
(a) Development of bones
(b)Mineralisation of bones
(iii) Protein due to
(a) Development of muscles
(b)Increase in height and weight
(iv) Vitamin A due to
(a) Healthy eyes and reduce susceptibility to eye diseases.
(b For a healthy skin.
Answer : Reasons for a Higher intake of calories,calcium,protein and iron by adolescent girls are:
(i)Calories due to:
(a) Involvement in strenuous exercise
(b)Greater metabolic rate
(ii)Calcium due to :
(a)Development of skeletal system
(b)For good appetite
(iii) Protein due to :
(a)Development of body mass
(iv)Iron due to:
(a) Increase in blood volume
(b)To replace monthly blood loss due to menstrual cycle.
5 Marks Questions
Answer : Five issues we will keep in mind while planning the diet of an adolescent child are:
(i) To provide variety,colour,taste appeal and adequate nutrition to the adolescent ,we will provide missi roti,rice pulao,pav bhaji,etc at different meals.
(ii) We will provide adequate amount of fibre in the menu by including fruits and salads along with the meals.
(iii) We will ensure that neither too nor too light meals are given at any time. Breakfast will be the heaviest meal of the day while dinner will be the lightest.
(iv) The total supply of nutrients will be divided into 3 equal parts,with one part being given in breakfast,another part during lunch and the third during evening tea time and dinner.
(v) Spicy and deep fried foods will be avoided.
Answer : The five basic food groups ,their functions,major nutrients provided by them and considerations for their use in planning a meal for a family are given below:
|Basic food group||Function||Major nutrients provided||Consideration|
|Cereals, millets and tubers||Providing energy||Energy,Proteint,VitaminB1,Vitamin B2,Folic acid, Iron and Fibre||Choose whole grain cereals instead of refined grains|
|Pulses and legumes||For body building||Energy,Proteint,VitaminB1,Vitamin B2,Folic acid, Calcium, Iron and Fibre||Give these to vegetarians along with nuts|
|Milk and milk produts,egg meat and fish||For body building||Protein,Fat,Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12 and Calcium||Include one serving of milk or milk products in any form|
|Vegetables and fruits||For giving protection||Invisible Fats, Carotenoids,Vitamin B2, Vitamin C,Folic acid,Calcium,Iron and Fibre||Include green leafy vegetables in any form|
|Oils and fats, nuts,sugar and jiggery||Providing energy||Energy,Fat and essential fatty Acids||Limit the use of ghee,butter,oil and sugar|