1 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Who is present Secretary General of the United Nations?
Answer : The present General-Secretary of the United Nations is former Prime Minister of Portugal, Antonio Guterres. He succeeded Ban-ki-Moon.
Question 2 : What is the main objective of the United Nations?
Answer : The main objective of the United Nations is prevention of conflicts and facilitating cooperation among states.
Question 3 : How many permanent members and non-permanent members does the UN Security Council have?
Answer : The UN Security Council has five permanent members and ten non-permanent members.
Question 4 : Mention any one function of the World Bank.
Answer : World Bank provides loans and grants to the member states; especially to the developing countries.
Question 5 : Mention the main function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
Answer : The main function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an international organisation which sets the rules for global trade.
Question 6 : What is the highest functionary of the UN called?
Answer : Secretary General is the highest functionary of the United Nations.
Question 7 : How many member states did the United Nations have till 2006?
Answer : United Nations has 193 member states as of 2021.
Question 8 : How many founder states signed the United Nations Charter in 1945?
Answer : There were 51 countries who signed the United Nations Charter in 1945.
Question 9 : State the main objective of the ‘Human Rights Watch.’
Answer : Human Rights Watch is an international NGO. Its main objective is to draw the global media’s attention to human rights abuses and advocacy for human rights.
Question 10 : Mention the full form of IMF. How many member states does it have?
Answer : The full form of IMF is International Monetary Fund. It has 188 member countries.
Question 11 : What is the main function of Amnesty International?
Answer : Amnesty International is an international NGO which campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world.
Question 12 : What is meant by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)?
Answer : International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organisation that seek to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to prevent its use for military purpose.
Question 13 : When was the World Trade Organisation (WTO) established? Name any country which used WTO to advance its own interest.
Answer : The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was established in 1995 as a successor to GATT. US, EU and Japan have used WTO to frame rules of trade to advance their own interests.
Question 14 : How many judges are there in the International Court of justice and what is their tenure?
Answer : There are 15 judges in the International Court of justice and their tenure is nine years.
Question 15 : What is World Health Organisation ?
Answer : World Health Organisation (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. The objective of WHO is to promote the highest possible level of health in all people.
Question 16 : What is Amnesty International?
Answer : Amnesty International is an NGO which is responsible for the protection of human rights across the world and publishes report to prevent and end grave abuse of human rights.
Question 17 : What is meant by this statement?
“The United Nations was not created to take humanity to the heaven, but to save it from the hell.” Dag Hammarskjold.
Answer : The statement means that the United Nations was not formed to make world a good and peaceful place to live in rather to save the world from another World War.
Question 18 : Name the international agency relating to environmental programme.
Answer : The international agency relating to environmental programme is United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP).
Question 19 : What is the composition of the UN Security Council?
Answer : The UN Security Council consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members.
2 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What is Amnesty International?
Answer : Amnesty International is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world.
Main functions of Amnesty International are :
(i) It promotes respect for all the human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(ii) It believes that human rights are interdependent and indivisible.
(iii) It prepares and publishes reports on human rights.
Question 2 : Mention any two agencies of the United Nations.
Answer : Two agencies of the United Nations are:
(i) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
(ii) International Labour Organisation (ILO)
Question 3 : List any four principal organs of the United Nations.
Answer : Four main organs of UN are:
(i) WHO (World Health Organisation)
(ii) UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
(iii) UNHRC (United Nations Human Rights Commission)
(iv) UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund)
Question 4 : Mention any two functions of the World Bank.
Answer : Two functions of World Bank are:
(i) World Bank works for human development, agriculture and rural development, environment protection, infrastructure and governance.
(ii) It provides and grants loans to the member countries.
Question 5 : Why are international organisations like the UN required?
Answer : We need international organisations like UN :
(i) To resolve the conflicts and differences among the nations.
(ii) To prescribe rules, regulations and mechanisms for cooperation to avoid mistrust and mismanagement.
Question 6 : Name one country each from the continents of American, Africa, Asia and Europe wherein the UN ‘peace keeping operations’ were administered.
Answer : America : Haiti in 2004
Africa : Liberia in 2003
Asia : Indian and Pakistan in 1949
Europe : Georgia in 1993 and Cyprus in 1964
Question 7 : How many member countries have got veto power in the UN Security Council and why?
Answer : All the five members of the UN have got veto power. The UN Charter gave the permanent members a privileged position to bring about stability in the world after the Second World War.
Question 8 : Suggest any two major changes to improve the functioning of the Security Council.
Answer : Two major changes to improve the functioning of the Security Council are:
(i) Number of permanent and non-permanent members to security council of UN is to be increased.
(ii) Veto power of five permanent countries to be withdrawn instantly.
Question 9 : What is the main objective of Amnesty International?
Answer : Main objectives of Amnesty International are:
(i) To promote respect for all human rights in the Universal declaration of Human Rights.
(ii) To prepare and publish reports on human rights.
Question 10 : List any two functions of the General Assembly of the UN.
Answer : Two functions of the General Assembly of the UN are:
(i) To discuss and make recommendation on any issue under the ambit of the UN charter.
(ii) To maintain international peace and security.
Question 11 : State any two objectives of the Human Rights Watch.
Answer : Human Rights Watch is an international NGO. Two objectives of it are:
(i) It draws the global media’s attention to human rights abuses.
(ii) It aids in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban landmines, to stop the use of child soldiers and to establish the International Criminal Court.
Question 12 : Highlight any two objectives of the Amnesty International.
Answer : Amnesty International is an NGO for the protection of human rights all over the world.
Its objectives are:
(i) To promote respect for all human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(ii) To prepare and publish reports on human rights.
Question 13 : Write the full form of any four of the following UN bodies.
Answer : (i) UNESCO : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
(ii) OPCW : Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(iii) UNRISD : United Nations Research Institute for Social Development
(iv) WMO : World Meteorological Organisation
(v) UNHCR : United Nations High Commission for Refugees.
Question 14 : What is meant by security council? Mention its composition.
Answer : Security council is one of the principle organs of UNO. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. The permanent members have the ‘Right to Veto’ and the other members are elected for a term of two years.
Question 15 : What is UNEP? Mention its any two main functions.
Answer : United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an international agency for the awareness of environmental consequences of economic growth. Two main functions of UNEP are:
(i) to hold international conferences
(ii) to promote detailed studies to get a more coordinated and effective response to environmental problems.
Question 16 : Why do only five permanent members of the security council have right to veto?
Answer : Permanent members are given the privilege of bringing stability in the world after the Second World War.
Privileges enjoyed by them are:
(i) Veto power
These are not enjoyed by the non-permanent members.
Question 17 : Highlight any two jurisdictions of the United Nations.
Answer : The two jurisdictions of United Nations are:
(i) Creation of a peace building commission.
(ii) Agreement to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Question 18 : Mention any two basic concerns about the reforms related to the processes and restructuring of the UNO.
Answer : Two basic concerns about the reforms related to the processes and restructuring of the UNO are:
(i) To increase the number of permanent and non-permanent members of security council.
(ii) US and other Western countries want improvement in the UN’s budgetary procedure and its administration.
Question 19 : Give any two reasons why veto power of permanent members of Security Council cannot be abolished.
Answer : Veto power of permanent members of Security Council cannot be abolished because:
(i) No permanent member would allow to do this.
(ii) To maintain the interest of big powers in functioning of UN, veto power is significantly important and without active participation of the permanent powers, the UN itself will become irrelevant.
Question 20 : Give any two arguments in support of India’s permanent membership of the UN Security Council.
Answer : Arguments in favour of India to be the member of UN Security Council are:
(i) India is the world’s second largest populated country which gives place to almost one fifth of the people of the world.
(ii) India is the world’s largest democracy.
Question 21 : Give any two arguments of some countries, which oppose the inclusion of India in UNSC as a permanent member.
Answer : Arguments of countries which oppose India’s inclusion as permanent member in UNSC are:
(i) The conflict between the India and Pakistan will make India ineffective as a permanent member.
(ii) With India’s inclusion in UNSC, prominent member countries like Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa will demand for their inclusion too.
Question 22 : Mention any two reforms in the UN after the Cold War.
Answer : UN was restructured and reformed after the Cold War on following two basis:
(i) Reform of the organisation’s structures and processes.
(ii) Review of the issues that fall under the jurisdiction of UN.
Question 23 : How is the International Court of Justice composed? Where is it based?
Answer : The International Court of Justice consists of fifteen judges who are elected for nine years by absolute majority in both the General Assembly and the Security Council. It is based on Hague, Netherlands.
4 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What is the full form of WTO? When was it set up? How does it function?
Answer : The full form of WTO is World Trade Organisation which sets the rules for global trade. It is an international organisation. It replaced GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) in 1995. It includes 157 member states. Major economic powers such as EU, US and Japan have managed to use the WTO to work in favour of them. And the developing countries complain about its non-transparent procudures and it being influenced by big powers.
Question 2 : Why do some countries question the issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent member of the UN Security Council? Explain.
Answer : India desires to be a permanent member of the UN Security Council but many countries question the issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent member.
It is not just Pakistan which is opposing India’s permanent membership, other countries are also questioning it on the basis of India’s nuclear weapons capability. The view of some members is that the conflict between India and Pakistan will make Indian membership ineffective.
Some other argue that with India’s inclusion, emerging powers such as Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa will also demand for their inclusion on the basis of their unrepresentative structure. And all this makes India’s inclusion a difficult task.
Question 3 : Wat is Human Rights Watch? Describe its main contribution to the field of Human Rights.
Answer : The Human Rights Watch is an international NGO involved in research and advocacy on human rights.
Main contribution in the field of human right is stated in the points below:
(i) It is the largest International Human Rights Organisation in the USA.
(ii) It draws the global media’s attention to human rights abouses.
(iii) It helped in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban landmines, to stop the use of child soldiers and to establish the international criminal court.
Question 4 : Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.
Answer : Many difficulties are involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN. Some of them are discussed below:
(i) Many viewed that Security Council no longer represented contemporary political realities. Some criteria were proposed for new permanent members and non-permanent members, such as a major economic power, military power, a nation that respects democracy and human rights, etc. Each of these criteria have some validity, but due to lack of clarity on certain points, the criteria were constructed to be problematic.
(ii) Change in the nature of membership was another proposed reform. Some insisted that ‘veto’ power of the permanent members of the Security Council should be abolished. But permanent members do not agree to such a reform. It is another major difficulty in reform.
(iii) Another difficulty was that how representation should be given to Asia, Africa, Latin America and Caribbean. But selection of the basis of representation i.e. geography, economic development, culture of civilization etc creates a problem.
Question 5 : As decided by the member states in 2005 highlight any four steps to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Answer : The following steps were proposed to make the UN more relevant in the changing scenario:
(i) Peace building commission will be created.
(ii) UN as an international community will accept its responsibility, in case of failure of National Government to save their citizens from atrocities.
(iii) Creation of Human Rights Council (operation since 19th June, 2006)
(iv) Agreement regarding achievement of millennium development goals.
(v) To condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
(vi) Agreement regarding dissolving the trusteeship council.
Question 6 : State any four criteria that have been proposed in the recent years for new permanent and non-permanent members of the UN Security Council.
Answer : To be a new members following criteria should be fulfilled:
(i) It should be a major economic power.
(ii) It should contribute substantially to the UN budget.
(iii) Population of the nation should be high.
(iv) The inclusion of that country should make the Security Council look more vivid in terms of geography.
(v) It should be a major military power.
Question 7 : What steps should be taken to strengthen the UNO?
Answer : In order to strengthen the UNO following steps can be taken:
(i) Reform of the organisation’s structure and processes. This step should be taken:
(a) To increase the permanent and non-permanent member in the UN Security Council so that it can represent contemporary world politics effective and better way.
(b) To bring improvement in the UN’s budgetary procedure and its administration.
(ii) Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation. It will facilitate the following:
(a) Greater role of UN in maintaining world peace and security.
(b) Limiting the role of UN to development and humanitarian work.
Question 8 : Explain any four reasons as to why India should be given a permanent membership in the UN Security Council.
Answer : The four reasons as to why India should be given a permanent membership in the UN Security Council are:
(i) India is the second most populous country which constitutes 1/5th of the population of the world.
(ii) India is also the world’s largest democracy.
(iii) India actively participated in the UN’s programmes and played a material role in keeping and managing peace and cooperation.
(iv) The regular financial aid to UN and evolution of its economy support India’s desire to be the permanent member.
Question 9 : Match the following organisations/agencies of the UN and their functions:
|(a) Economic and Social Council||(i) Look after, administration and coordination of UN affairs’|
|(b) International Atomic Energy Agency||(ii) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies|
|(c) UN High Commission for Refugees||(iii) Performs economic and social welfare functions of the members countries|
|(d) Secretariat||(iv) Safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology|
|(a) Economic and Social Council||(i) Performs economic and social welfare functions of the members countries|
|(b) International Atomic Energy Agency||(ii) Safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology|
|(c) UN High Commission for Refugees||(iii) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies|
|(d) Secretariat||(iv) Look after, administration and coordination of UN affairs’|
Question 10 : How are international organisations helpful to the nation?
Answer : International organisations can be helpful to nations in the following ways:
(i) They facilitate platform where different countries can cooperate for better living condition for all of us.
(ii) They help in managing the matter of war and peace.
(iii) They provide mechanisms, rules and human resources to the members states to deal with issues and problems of global concern.
(iv) They develop a sense of shared responsibility for shared problems such as terrorism, climate change, global warming etc.
(v) They produce important information and conduct research which can be helpful for international society to have better understanding of state of affairs.
6 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Trace the evolution of the United Nations since its establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its structures and agencies.
Answer : The United Nations was established in 1945 after the end of the Second World War as a successor to the League of Nations. The United Nations Charter was singed by 51 states for setting up of UN.
Objectives of UN : The basic aims was to achieve what League of Nations was not able to achieve during the World Wars. The other objectives of UN are as follows:
(i) Prevention of conflicts and facilitating cooperation among nations.
(ii) To stop conflicts among states resulting into war and if it takes the shape of war, to limit the effects of war.
(iii) To reduce the reasons for conflict by bringing the countries together for improving social and economic development all over the world.
UN Structures and Agencies : UN includes many different structures for dealing with different issues. The issue relating to war and peace, and differences between member states are dealt by discussion in General Assembly as well as in the Security Council education. The other issues such as social and economic are dealt by a number of agencies which include:
(i) WHO : World Health Organisation
(ii) UNDP : United Nations Development Programme
(iii) UNHRC : United Nations Human Rights Commission
(iv) UNHCR : United Nations High Commission for Refugees
(v) UNICEF : United Nations Children’s Fund
(vi) UNESCO : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
Question 2 : Describe the two basic reforms of the UN on which almost everyone agrees that they are necessary after the cold war.
Answer : As reform and improvement are fundamental to any organisation, there have been demands for changes in the UN from different countries.
The nature of reforms that are desired are of two types:
(i) Reform of the organisation’s structure and processes.
(ii) Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation.
The structural reform’s major area was the functioning of the security council. This covers the increment of permanent and non-permanent members of UN Security Council so as to show in better way the realities of present and world politics. Whereas the proposed increment should be from Asia, Africa and South America. The another area of reform for UN was its budgetary procedures and administration.
When the areas of jurisdiction are taken, some states and experts wish that the UN should have more role in peace and security missions whereas others wish to restrict UN’s role in development and humanitarian world like health, education, environment, population control, human rights, gender and social justice.
Question 3 : Which three complaints related to the UN Security Council were reflected in the resolution passed by the UN General Assembly in 1992? Describe any three criteria that have been proposed for new permanent members of the security council.
Answer : In 1992, with a view to bring reforms in the UN Security Council, a resolution was adopted by the UN General Assembly.
The resolution was about following three main complaints:
(i) The security council is not adequately representing the present political realities.
(ii) Decision by security council are reflective of Western values and interests and dominance by a few powers.
(iii) The representation is not on an equitable basis.
In view of reorganisation, UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan initiated an inquiry into the ways of reformation of UN on 1st January, 1997.
After the years of inquiry, following criteria have been suggested for the permanent and non-permanent members of Security Council.
Question 4 : Describe the composition of the UN Security Council. What is the major difference in the privileges given to its permanent and non-permanent members/
Answer : Composition of the UN Security Council : The Security Council is an important organ of the United Nations Organisation (UNO). It consists of five permanent members (China, United States of America, United Kingdom, Russia and France) and ten non-permanent members who are elected for a period of two years).
The selection of the permanent members were on the basis of their being powerful immediately after the Second World War and they being the victors in the war.
There is the major difference in the privileges given to the permanent and non-permanent members.
Privileges to its Permanent and Non-Permanent Members : The UN Charter gave the permanent members a privileged position to bring about stability in the world. After the Second World War the main privileges enjoyed by the permanent members are:
(ii) Veto power
The non-permanent members are elected only for two years at a time and cannot be re-elected after completing two years. They are elected in a manner so that they represent all continents of the world.
The non-permanent members do not have the veto power. When decisions are taken by security council, voting is done. All members can vote in a negative manner so that even if all other members vote for a particular decision, any permanent member’s negative vote can stall the decision. This negative vote is the veto.
Question 5 : Assess any six steps suggested since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Answer : This has been covered earlier.
Question 6 : How far did the UN perform its role successfully in maintaining peace in the world? Explain.
Answer : The UN performs its role successfully in maintaining peace in the world. This can be justified from the points below:
(i) US leaders, in spite of their frequent criticism of the UN, do see the organisation as serving a purpose in bringing together over 190 nations in dealing with conflict and social and economic development.
(ii) The UN provides an arena in which it is possible to modify US attitudes and policies.
(iii) Although the rest of the world is rarely united against Washington, and it is virtually impossible to ‘balance’ US power. However, the UN does provide a space within which argument against specific US attitudes and policies are concessions can be shaped.
(iv) The UN is an imperfect body, but without it the world would be worse off. Given the growing connections and links between societies and issues-what we often call interdependence- it is hard to imagine how more than seven billion people would live together without an organisation such as the UN.
(v) Technology promises to increase planetary interdependence, and therefore the importance of the UN will only increase.
(vi) Peoples and governments also find ways of supporting and using the UN and other international organisations in ways that are consistent with their own interests and the interests of the international community more broadly.