ICSE Class 10 Board Questions and Answers on Soils in India and Natural Vegetation of India

1 Mark Questions

Q1. Differentiate between afforestation and deforestation.

Answer: Afforestation means planting of trees whereas deforestation means cutting down of trees.

Q2. Under what rainfall conditions are the tropical rainforests found?

Answer: Tropical rainforests are found in areas where annual rainfall is more than 200cm.

Q3. What are two main characteristics of the trees found in tropical evergreen forests?

Answer: Two characteristics of the trees in tropical evergreen forests are as follows:

(i) They do not shed their leaves throughout the year.

(ii) These are hard, fine-grained and durable.

Q4. Which regions of India have desert vegetation? How are they adapted to climate?

Answer: Desert vegetation is found in Kutch, Saurashtra, South-West Punjab, Rajasthan and the dry part of the Deccan. They have adapted to the climate by having long roots to draw water from deep, as rainfall is very less.

Q5. Name one state of India which mostly has red soils.

Answer: Jharkhand is a state in India, which mostly has red soils.

Q6. Mention two characteristics of red soils.

Answer: Two characteristics of red soils are as follows:

(i) They are red in colour due to high iron content.

(ii) Their colour may vary from yellow to brown as percentage of iron varies.

Q7. Name the vegetation type found in saline environment under tidal influence.

Answer: Mangrove forest is the vegetation type found in saline environment under tidal influence.

Q8. Name the most important tree associated with type of vegetation you have named above.

Answer: Sundari is the most important tree associated with mangrove vegetation.

Q9. Name the economically most important vegetation belt of India.

Answer: The deciduous monsoon forests are economically most important vegetation belt of India.

Q10. How does the soil of the Ganga-Yamuna plain differ from that of central Maharashtra?

Answer: Ganga-Yamuna plain is made up of alluvial soil, which is transported by rivers whereas central Maharashtra is made up of black regur soil which is made up of weathered volcanic rocks.

Q11. Which soil is found suitable for coffee cultivation in Karnataka?

Answer: Laterite soil is suitable for coffee cultivation in Karnataka.

Q12. Name the type of soil found on the summit of the Eastern Ghats.

Answer: Laterite soil is found on the summits of the Eastern Ghats.

Q13. Name the soil known for its self-ploughing quality and capacity to hold moisture. Name one cash crop for which it is most suited.

Answer: Black soil is known for its self-ploughing quality and capacity to hold moisture. Cotton is the most suited cash crop for this soil.

 

2 Marks Questions

Q14. State any two methods of controlling soil erosion.

Answer: The two method of controlling soil erosion are as follows:

(i) Planting more trees and stopping indiscriminate felling of trees.

(ii) Terrace farming checks erosion in hilly areas.

Q15. Mention two differences between alluvial soils and red soils.

Answer: Differences between alluvial soils and red soils are as follows:

           Alluvial Soils Red Soils
 (i) Transported soil and deposited by rivers.

(ii) Rich in potash and lime.

(i) In-situ soil made by weathering of old crystalline rocks.

(ii) Red in colour due to its high iron content.

 

Q16. Write two reasons why monsoon deciduous forests are commercially more valuable than other types of forests.

Answer: Monsoon deciduous forests are commercially more valuable because

(i) they yield valuable timber and other forests products.

(ii) they are not very dense, therefore, are easily accessible for commercially use.

Q17. How do forests

(i) have a favorable effect on the climate of the region?

(ii) act as a flood control measure?

Answer:

(i) Forests moderate the temperature of the region and help in bringing rain to it.

(ii) The roots of plants and trees firmly hold the soil particles, which prevents displacements of the top layer of soil.

Q18. State two difference between bhangar and khaddar.

Answer: The two differences between bhangar and khaddar are as follows:

           Bhangar Khadar
 (i) It is old alluvium soil.

(ii) It is less fertile.

(i) Ii is new alluvium soil.

(ii) It is more fertile.

 

Q19. Name the process by which laterite soil is formed. Mention one disadvantage of the soil.

Answer: Laterite soil is formed by leaching. Leaching is a process by which the nutrients of top soil are washed away. One disadvantage of this soil is that, it is very acidic in nature and cannot retain moisture.

Q20. Mention two main characteristics of tropical rainforests.

Answer: The two main characteristics of tropical rainforests.

(i) Trees are dense and evergreen and do not shed leaves any particular season.

(ii) The thick ground cover has ground has climbers and epiphytes.

Q21. Briefly explain two reason for forests being an important natural resource.

Answer: Forests are an important natural resource because

(i) They moderate the temperature and help in bringing rain as well as purifying air.

(ii) They provide timber and other forests products.

Q22. State two methods of controlling soil erosion caused by running water.

Answer: Soil erosion caused by running water can be controlled by

(i) Planting trees

(ii) Terrace farming.

Q23. Mention two differences in the alluvial soils of the Northern plains and the alluvial soils on the coastal plains of India.

Answer: The two difference in the alluvial soils of the Northern plains and the alluvial soils on the coastal plains of India are

(i) The alluvial soil of the Northern plains in lighter in colour than that on the coastal plains.

(ii) The alluvial soil of the Northern plains in more porous and less clayey than that on the coastal plains.

Q24. Mention two reasons why tropical evergreen forests are difficult to exploit for commercial purpose.

Answer: Tropical evergreen forests are dense and found in mixed stands, which makes them difficult to exploit for commercial purpose.

Q25. Give two characteristics of tidal forests.

Answer: Two characteristics of tidal forests are as follows:

(i) They have breathing roots, which act as respiratory organs.

(ii) Trunks of these trees are supported by stilt like roots, helping the plants to survive the shifting mud of coastal regions.

Q26. Name two states in India where regur soil is found. In what way does regur soil help agriculture?

Answer: Regur soil is found in Gujarat and Maharashtra. It is moisture retentive and rich in iron, potash, lime, calcium, magnesium and humus, which is very helpful for agriculture.

Q27. Mention two characteristics of laterite soils.

Answer: Two characteristics of laterite soils are as follows:

(i) They lack in nutrition due to leaching.

(ii) They are not moisture retentive and coarse in texture.

Q28. What are ‘Tidal forests’? Name two typical trees are found there.

Answer: The forests that grow in delta regions of Ganga, Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Cauvery are called ‘tidal forests’. Sundari and hintal are two typical trees found here.

Q29. Name the soil which

(i) Covers the summits of the Eastern Ghats

(ii) Makes up the delta of the river Ganga

(iii) Is the most suitable for the cultivation of cotton.

(iv) Is sticky when wet and cracks when dry.

Answer:

(i) Laterite soil.

(ii) Alluvial soil.

(iii) Black or Regur soil.

(iv) Black or Regur soil.

Q30. What is soil conservation? How does re afforestation help in soil conservation?

Answer: Soil conservation is an effort made by man to prevent or reduce the rate of destructive erosion of soil by taking preventive measures. It maintains the fertility and productivity of land.

Reafforestation is planting of two saplings in place of one felling tree, in areas which are deforested, thus saving the soil from erosion caused by both water and wind.

Q31. Name the soil which is formed due to high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. Name two states where this type of soil is found.

Answer: Laterite soil is formed due to high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. This type of soil is found in Karnataka and Odisha.

Q32. Write any two characteristics of red soils.

Answer: Two characteristics of red soils are as follows:

(i) They are red in colour due to high iron content.

(ii) Their colour may vary from yellow to brown as percentage of iron varies.

Q33. Explanation the formation of laterite  soil. Why is laterite  soil not suitable for cultivation?

Answer: Laterite soil is formed by intense leaching of the parent rock due to heavy rain with alternate wet and dry periods. It is not suitable for cultivation because it is acidic in nature and it is unable to retain moisture.

Q34. Give one difference between the following

(i) Khadar soil and Bhangar soil

(ii) Sheet erosion and Wind erosion

Answer:

(i) Khadar soil is sandy and of pale brown complexion, while bhangar soil is of clayey composition and dark in colour.

(ii) Sheet erosion occurs by water due to heavy rain washing away the even top surface of the soil, while wind erosion occurs on extensive flat lands due to blowing of wind during the dry season.

Q35. Name an area of black soil in India. Mention any two crops grown in this soil.

Answer: The Deccan plateau is an area of black soil in India. Cotton and Tobacco are two crops grown in this soil.

Q36. State two difference between alluvial soils and red soils.

Answer: Differences between alluvial soils and red soils are as follows:

           Alluvial Soils Red Soils
(i) Transported soil and deposited by rivers.

(ii) Rich in potash and lime.

(i) In-situ soil made by weathering of old crystalline rocks.

(ii) Red colour due to its high iron content.

 

Q37. Why is laterite soil unsuitable for the cultivation of crops? Name an area in India where this soil is found.

Answer: Laterite soil is unsuitable for cultivation of crops because it is acidic in nature and it is unable to retain moisture. This soil is found mainly on the summits of the summits of the Western and Eastern Ghats.

Q38. Define leaching. In which region, South of the Tropic of Cancer, can one find soil formed by leaching?

Answer: The process in which the nutrients of the topsoil are washed away, thereby making the topsoil infertile, is called leaching. The regions where this soil can be found are the summits of the Western and Eastern Ghats.

Q39. Explain the origin of the black soil. Name two states in India which have black soil.

Answer: Black soil is formed by the weathering of the Deccan trap, which was formed by solidification of lava generated by volcanic activity. It is found in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

Q40. Mention two advantages of black soils.

Answer: The two advantages of black soils are as follows:

(i) It retains moisture and is highly fertile.

(ii) It contains lime, alumina, iron, potash, magnesium carbonates and calcium, which are very useful for cultivation of crops like cotton, sugarcane, etc.

Q41. Name of one region in India for each of the following:

(i) Tropical evergreen forest

(ii) Thorn and scrub forest

Answer:

(i) Tropical evergreen forest – Western Ghats

(ii) Thorn and scrub forest – Rajasthan, Haryana, Kutch of Gujarat and Western Punjab.

3 Marks Questions

Q42. Give a geographical reason for the following (s)

(i) Different regions in India having different kinds of soil.

(ii) Black soil being suitable for growth of cotton.

(iii) The conservation of soil as a natural resource.

Answer:

(i) Different regions in India having different kinds of soil because they have different parent materials and climatic conditions.

(ii) Black soil is suitable for cotton cultivation because it is moisture retentive and highly fertile.

(iii) Conservation of soil as a natural resource is necessary because productive soil ensures prosperity in agriculture, industrial development and in general, economic development.

Q43. Name the soil which.

(i) Is good for the cultivation of cashew nuts

(ii) Covers almost all of West Bengal.

(iii) Is a result of leaching.

Answer:

(i) laterite soil is good for the cultivation of cashew nuts.

(ii) West Bengal is part of Indo-Gangetic plain which is rich in alluvial soil.

(iii) Laterite soil is formed as a result of leaching.

Q44. Give one important use of each of the following types of trees:

(i) Sundari

(ii) Sandalwood

(iii) Rosewood

Answer:

(i) Sundari wood is suited for making boats.

(ii) Sandalwood is used for making medicine, handicrafts and perfume.

(iii) Rosewood is used for making expensive furniture.

Q45. Name the natural vegetation largely found in the following regions:

(i) The delta of the Ganga River

(ii) The windward side of the Western Ghats

(iii) The Deccan plateau

Answer:

(i) Tidal forests

(ii) Tropical evergreen forests

(iii) Deciduous monsoon forests and scrub/thorn forests.

Q46. Differentiate between Transported soil and In-situ soil, quoting a suitable example for each.

Answer:

                  Transported Soil                                       In-situ Soil
(i) A soil, which is carried by rivers or wind from elsewhere to the place of rest.

e.g., Alluvial soil

(i) A soil, which remains at the place where it has been formed due to decomposition of rocks.

e.g., Black soil.

 

Q47. With the reference to red soils in India, answer the following questions

(i) Name two states where it is found.

(ii) State two advantages of this type of soil.

(iii) Mention two important crops grown in this soil.

Answer:

(i) Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are two states where red soil is found.

(ii) The two advantages of red soil are as follows:

(a) It has high iron oxide content and potash.

(b) It is porous and easily crumbles.

(iii) Rice and millets are two important crops grown in this soil.

Q48. Name the tree, the timber of which could be used for the following

(i) A soft and white timber used for making toys and matchboxes.

(ii) A hard durable timber used for ship building and furniture making.

(iii) A sweet smelling timber, which yields an oil, used for handicrafts.

Answer:

(i) Semul

(ii) Teak

(iii) Sandalwood

Q49.

(i) Name one region in India for each of the following

(a) Tidal forest.

(b) Thorn scrub

(ii) Explain why thorn and scrub forests are found in the above mentioned region.

Answer:

(i)

(a) Tidal forest – Ganga delta

(b) Thorn and scrub forest – North-West Parts of India.

(ii) Thorn and scrub forests are found in the above region because these areas get less than 100cm of rainfall and average temperature of 25®C to 27®C.

Q50. Mention any three characteristics of black soil which make the soil fertile.                        

Answer:

The three characteristics of black soil, which make the soil fertile, are as follows:

(i) It is rich in Iron, potash, lime, calcium, alumina and magnesium carbonates.

(ii) It is moisture retentive and becomes sticky when wet and get cracked when dry.

(iii) It is fined grained in structure.

Q51. Give geographical reasons for the following

(i) Laterite soil is not suitable for cultivation.

(ii) Red soil is red in colour.

(iii) Khadar soils are preferred to bhangar soils.

Answer:

(i) Laterite soil is lacking in fertility due to the leaching away of nutrients, also it is not moisture retentive.

(ii) Red soil is red in colour due to presence of iron.

(iii) Khadar soil are preferred because they are more fertile due to being replenished every year by floods.

Q52. Mention three reasons, why forests must be conserved.

Answer: Forests must be conserved because

(i) They check soil erosion.

 (ii) They help maintaining the ecological balance of the region.

(iii) They help in preventing floods.

Q53. Name any three trees found in monsoon deciduous forests and state one use of each of these trees.

Answer: Sal, teak and myrobalan are three trees found in monsoon deciduous forests.

Their uses are as follows:

(i) Sal is useful for railway sleepers.

(ii)Teak is used for house construction and furniture.

(iii) Myrobalan provides material for tanning leather.

Q54. State the difference between alluvial soils found in the lower course and the upper courses of rivers.

Answer: Alluvial soil found in the lower course in the rivers is fine in texture, moist and rich in humus whereas alluvial soil found in the upper course is drier, porous and sandy as well as being coarser in texture.

Q55. Name two important agents of erosion. For each, state one method of controlling the erosion caused.

Answer: Wind and running water are two important agents of erosion. Erosion by wind can be controlled by planting a shelter belt of trees and shrubs perpendicular to the wind direction. Erosion by running water can be controlled by terracing and contour ploughing.

Q56. Name the type of forests found in the western parts of the Western Ghats. Give two reasons why these forests are so named.

Answer: Tropical evergreen forests are found in the Western parts of the Western Ghats. These forests are called evergreen because they do not have any particular season to shed leaves and thus, remain green throughout the year. The second reason is that they grow in the tropical region of India and thus, are named ‘tropical’.

Q57. Mention three methods for the conservation and development of forests in India.

Answer: Three methods of the conservation and development of forests in India are as follows:

(i) Checking indiscriminate deforestation.

(ii) Afforestation by planting trees.

(iii) Banning the practice of shifting cultivation by tribals and reafforestation.

Q58. Name the process by which laterite soil is formed. What climatic conditions are responsible for its formation?

Answer: Leaching is the process by which laterite soil is formed. The climatic conditions responsible for its formation are high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate dry and wet periods.

Q59. Give reasons for the following

(i) Black soil is largely found in the Deccan trap region.

(ii) Khadar is more fertile than Bhangar.

(iii) Soil erosion by wind is common in arid regions.

Answer:

(i) The reason is that it is ‘in-situ’ and formed by the weathering of lava origin rocks spread over large areas of the Deccan trap region.

(ii) It is because Khadar has fine particles of clay whereas Bhangar contains kankars or small rock particles.

(iii) The arid regions receive no rainfall or very scanty rainfall and are also devoid of vegetation cover. In the absence of vegetation, soil becomes loose and easy to move by high velocity winds.

Q60. What is conservation of soil? Name any two farming techniques which help in soil conservation.

Answer: Soil conservation is an made by effort made by man to prevent or reduce the rate of destructive erosion of soil by taking preventive measures.

Farming techniques helping in soil conservation are as follows:

(i) Contour ploughing

(ii) Terrace farming

Q61. Explain the following terms

(i) Transported soil

(ii) In-situ

(iii) Humus

Answer:

(i) Transported soil:- When soil is carried from the place of its origin to another place by degrading agents, it is called transported soil.

(ii) In-situ:- When the soil remains at the place of its origin after formation, then it is called in-situ.

(iii) Humus:-  The decomposed form of plant remains, animal manure and dead animal is called humus.

Q62. Mention two characteristics of black soil. Why is this soil agriculturally important?

Answer: Characteristics of black soil are as follows:

(i) Moisture retentive.

(ii) Rich in iron, potash, lime, calcium, etc.

This soil is agriculturally important because of moisture retentive and self ploughing qualities. It ensures that water is available for the growth of the crops when required.

Q63. Give a reason as to why

(i) Red soil is red in colour.

(ii) Large tracts in Maharashtra are covered with black soil.

(iii) Man is largely responsible for soil erosion.

Answer:

(i) This soil is red in colour due to the presence of iron oxide.

(ii) Large tracts of Maharashtra come under the Deccan trap region which was formed by weathering of volcanic lava origin rocks.

(iii) De-forestation for habitation, wrong method of farming and overgrazing by domesticated animals make man responsible for soil erosion.

Q64. How alluvial soil is formed? Why is this soil agriculturally important?

Answer: Alluvial soil is formed by silt brought by rivers and it is also called transported soil. It is agriculturally important due to the presence of high content of potash and humus which is good for the cultivation of rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, and jute.

Q65. Explain the need for soil conservation in India. State two methods of soil conservation

Answer: There is need for soil conservation in India as it is important to our national economy, as productive soil ensures prosperity in agriculture and thus, the prosperity of the nation as a whole.

Two methods of soil conservation are as follows:

(i) Contour ploughing

(ii) Terrace farming.

Q66. How is red soil formed? State two reasons for the low productivity of red soil

Answer: Red soil is formed by weathering of old crystalline and metamorphic rocks. Reasons for its low productivity are

(i) It is not moisture retentive.

(ii) It is deficient in various minerals and humus.

Q67. Differentiate between sheet erosion and gully erosion.

Answer:

                  Sheet Erosion                                       Gully Erosion
(i) Torrential downpour of rain in hilly regions causes this erosion.

(ii) It is harmful because it removes the fertile topsoil.

(i) Caused by running water down the slope and gushes in distinct path forming rills.

(ii) It cuts up agricultural land and makes it unfit for cultivation.

 

Q68. With reference to the red soils in India, answer the following

(i) Name two states, where it is found.

(ii) State two disadvantages of the above named soil.

Answer:

(i) Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan are two states, where red soil is found.

(ii) Two disadvantages are as follows:

(a) It is not moisture retentive.

(b) It lacks minerals like lime, phosphates, humus and nitrogen.