Human Health and Disease
Short Questions and Answers
One mark questions with answers
1. Immunity acquired after an infection is
(a) active immunity
(b) passive immunity
(c) innate immunity
(d) both B and C
Answer: (a) active immunity
2. Active immunity is got from
(b) weakened germs in injection
(c) live germs in injection
(d) blood transfusion
Answer: (b) weakened germs in injection
3. Analgesic drugs
(a) form tissues
(b) relief pain
(c) relief fatigue
(d) causes pain
Answer: (b) relief pain
4. AIDS is caused by
Answer: (b) virus
5. Immune deficiency syndrome could develop due to
(a) defective liver
(b) defective thymus
(c) AIDS virus
(d) weak immune system
Answer: (c) AIDS virus
6. Opiatic narcotic is
Answer: (c) Heroine
7. Heroine is form of
Answer: (b) Poppy
8. AIDS virus has
(a) single stranded DNA
(b) double stranded DNA
(c) single stranded RNA
(d) double stranded RNA
Answer: (c) single stranded RNA
9. LSD is formed from
Answer: (b) Claviceps
10. Opium is got from
Answer: (b) fruits
11. An autoimmune disease is
(d) Myasthena gravis
Answer: (d) Myasthena gravis
12. HIV has a protein coat and a genetic material which is
Answer: (c) ssRNA
13. AZT used in the treatment of
(d) Kala Azar
Answer: (b) AIDS
14. HIV attacks
Answer: (c) T-lymphocytes
15. Most common cancer in human is
Answer: (d) Carcinoma
Two marks questions with answers
1. What measure would you take to prevent water borne disease?
Answer: (a). All water reservoirs, pools and tanks should be periodically cleaned and disinfected.
(b) prevention of passage of garbage and sewage into the water bodies
(c) use of only purified (free from contamination, suspended and dissolved substances) water for drinking, washing of salad and fruits as well as preparation of food.
2. What does ‘a suitable gene’ means, in the context of DNA vaccines?
Answer: In DNA vaccine suitable gene means the gene controlling the formation of immunogenic protein. Such genes can be cloned and then integrated with vector for introduction into an individual to be immunized.
3. Name the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.
Answer: Primary lymphoid organs- are organs where B Lymphocytes and T Lymphocytes are formed, mature and acquire antigen specific receptors- bone marrow and thymus.
Secondary lymphoid organs- place of residence of measure lymphocytes- lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, Peyer’s patches and other mucosal surfaces.
4. What are the various routes by which transmission of human immunodeficiency virus takes place?
Answer: (a) Sexual contact with infected person.
(b) Transfusion of contaminated blood and blood products.
(c) By sharing infected needles in case of intravenous drug abusers.
(d) From mother to child through placenta.
5. What is cell mediated immune system (CMIS)?
Answer: It is component of immune system which consists of T-lymphocytes. The system provides cellular immunity. It functions against pathogens which pass into host cells. The immune system also operates against cancer cells and transplants. It also activates B-lymphocytes.
Three marks questions with answers
1. What is the mechanism by which AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of infected person?
Answer: Macrophages, helper T-cells and some nerve cells possess T-4 or CD-4 antigen receptor sites over their surface. HIV gets attached to these sites and passes into cells. It multiplies in cells. Virus particles bud out of the cells which die afterwards. The newly released virus particles attack new cells, especially the helper T-cells. Soon the number of helper T-cells decreases. Since helper T-cells are essential for functioning of immune system, their reduced number results in deficient functioning of immune system of the infected person.
2. Explain what is meant by metastasis?
Answer: Metastasis is a spread of cancer through migration of cancer cells to other tissues and organs resulting in the formation of secondary tumours. The spread results due to overgrowth of primary tumour. The overgrown tumour cells pass into blood vessels or directly from secondaries. After reaching another suitable tissue or organ, a new tumour is formed. Tumours which can form secondaries are called malignant tumours. Cells capable of migrating from a tumour are called malignant cells.
3. List some of the effects of drug/alcohol abuse.
Answer: (1) Behaviour: Addicts show reckless behavior, vandalism and violence. Interest in work, commitment to duty and self-confidence is lost.
(2) Body coordination: Neural and neuromuscular junctions are affected. As a result, coordination of body parts, working of nervous and muscular systems are influenced. Tremors become common.
(3) Impaired digestion: Addicts have not much interest in eating proper food. Addiction disturbs peristalsis and secretion of digestive enzymes. Therefore, digestion is impaired.
(4) Nausea and vomiting: Disturbed digestive and nervous system leads to frequent nausea and vomiting.
(5) Damage to liver and kidneys: Drugs, alcohol and tobacco affect liver and kidneys as they become involved in metabolism and elimination of their products. The damaged liver undergoes cirrhosis.
4. What do you mean by addiction? Explain in brief.
Answer: Addiction is the state of giving up to a drug, alcohol or tobacco due to becoming physically, physiological and psychologically attached to its certain effects like euphoria and temporary feeling of well-being. The term addiction has been replaced by dependence by WHO (1964) because the addicted person becomes dependent upon addictive substance for normal body functions. (1) There is repeated or daily consumption of addictive substances. (2) There is always a craving to use the substance at routine time. (3) There is a tendency to neglect various activities despite harmful effects. (4) An addict has a tendency to obtain the additive substance by all means, ignoring all social norms.
5. Differentiate between innate immunity and acquired immunity.
Answer: Innate immunity is present from birth whereas acquired immunity develops during lifetime. Innate immunity remains throughout life the acquired immunity can be short lift or life long. In case of innate immunity contact with pathogen or its antigen is not essential whereas in case of acquired immunity contact with pathogen or in its antigen is essential. Innate immunity is inheritable whereas acquired immunity cannot be passed to the next generation accept for a brief period to neonates.
6. What are the unique features of acquired immunity?
Answer: (1) Specificity: It is specific for each type of pathogen. Therefore it has the ability to distinguish among various types of foreign molecules.
(2) Diversity: Acquired or adaptive immunity can develop against all the diverse types of pathogens, their toxins and other molecules.
(3) Discrimination between self and nonself: It can differentiate foreign and body cells and molecules. Only the foreign or non self materials are attacked.
(4) Memory: The first encounter between the specific foreign agent or microbe and the body’s immune system produces not only the immune response but also memory of this encounter.