Comprehension Check (NCERT Page 45)

1. Look at picture 1 and recall the opening lines of the original song in Hindi. Who is the singer ? Who else do you see in this picture (Refer Picture of NCERT Page no 36)?

Ans.  “Ae mere watan ke logon, zara aankh mein bhar lo paani, jo shaheed hue hain unki zara yaad karo kurbaani” are the opening lines of the song sung by Lata Mangeshkar. pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the Independent India, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi can also be seen in the picture, sitting in the audience.

2. In picture 2 what do you understand by the Company’s ” superior weapon” (Refer Picture 2 of NCERT page no 37)?

Ans.  The Company’s ‘superior weapons’ could mean the game of mind that British played to established and spread their rule in India. Also their superior guns and artillery are reffered as the Company’s ” superior weapons”.

3. Who is an artisan? Why do you think the artisans suffered? (Refer to picture 3 of NCERT Page no 38)

Ans.  The artisan are skilled craftsman who manually created goods. They suffered with the coming of the British because the British imported their goods to India at a bulk scale. the artisans could not keep pace with the quantity of machine manufactured goods that flooded the Indian markets even when the artisan’s skill was of a much higher quality.

4. Which picture, according to you, reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt( Refer to picture 4 of NCERT Page no 39)

Ans.  Picture 4 reveals the first spark of revolt when the Europeans were massacred by the ‘Santhals’ of Bengal in 1855.

Working with the Text (NCERT Page 45)

Answer the following questions.

1. Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?

Ans. The Indian princes were surely short-sighted to the events of 1757 because they failed to understand the consequences of the foreign help that they sought to in order to resolve their internal matters.

2. How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?

Ans.  The Indian princes fought against each other and sought the help of the British to gain control of the situation. This, in reality, soon turned them puppets in the hands of the British. The British, thereafter, managed to subdue and control them.

3. Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles.

Ans.  According to Ram Mohan Roy, “Cows are of different colours. But the colour of their milk is the same. Different teachers have different opinions, but the essence of different religions is the same.”

4. In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians ?

Ans. British officers exploit Indians in multiple ways.They reduced the Indians into nothingness by passing the Regulation III. They imposed heavy taxes on the Indian farmers and reformed the land laws too. they imported English goods in bulk without paying import duties and crippled the Indian artisans.

5. Name these people.

(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting

(ii) The person who wanted to reform the society.

(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.

(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (choices may vary).

Ans.

(i) Tipu Sultan

(ii) Ram Mohan Roy

(iii) Lord Macaulay

(iv) Tatya Tope and Peshwa Nana Saheb

6. Mention the Following.

(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.

(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.

(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.

(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence.

Ans.

(i) Untouchability and Child marriage

(ii) Regulation III and import of British goods without import duty.

(iii) the farmers were heavily taxed and many Indians lost their jobs.

(iv) (a) Taxes that ruined the farmers.

(b) Changes in the laws related to land.

(c) Disparity in the perks privileges and wages of British soldiers and the Indian soldiers.

(d) The grease used on the bullets was made from the fat of cows and pigs.

Working with Language (NCERT Page 45)

In comics, what the character speak is put in bubbles. This is direct narration.When we report what the character speak, we use the method of indirect narration.

Study These Examples

First farmer Why are your men taking away the entire crop ?

Second farmer Your men have taken away everything.

Officer You are still in arrears. If you don’t pay tax next week, I’ll send you to jail.

  • The first farmer asked the officer why his men were taking away the entire crop.
  • The second farmer said that their men had taken away everything.
  • The officer replied that they were still in arrears and he warned them that if they did not pay tax the following week, he (the officer) would send them (the farmers) to jail.

1. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.

(i) First man We must educate our brothers.

Second man And try to improve their material condition.

Third man  For that we must convey our grievances to the British Parliament.

The first man said that ………………………………………

The second man added that ……………………………………….

The third man suggested that ………………………………………

Ans.

The first man said that they must educate their brothers. The second man added that they had to try to improve their material condition. The third man suggested that they must convey their grievance to the British Parliament.

(ii) First soldier The white soldier gets huge pay, mansions and servants.

Second soldier We get pittance and slow promotions.

Third soldier Who are the British to abolish our customs?

The first soldier said that ………………………………….

The second soldier remarked that ……………………………….

The third soldier asked …………………………

Ans.  The first soldier said that the white soldier got huge pay, mansions and servants. The second soldier remarked that they only got pittance and slow promotions. The third soldier asked who were the British to abolish their customs.

Speaking and Writing (NCERT Page 46)

1. Playact the role of farmers ho have grievances against the policies of the government. Rewrite their ‘speech bubbles’ in dialogue for first.

Ans. 

First Farmer These foreigners are worst than our Indian princes.

Second Farmer Yes, you are absolutely right. They have taken away our entire crop.

Third Farmer As if this wasn’t enough, they have levied heavy taxes on us and arrears too.

First Farmer The rain gods don’t seem to be very happy either. The famine would ruin our entire family.

Second Farmer Despite, so much suffering, we are further threatened that we would be put into jail.

Third Farmer Someone was talking about some Regulation III, which says that Indians could be jailed without any trial.

Second Farmer We are damn forever. Death be to the foreigner.

2. Coming Soon…..

3. Read the following news item.

History becomes fun at this school

Mumbai: Students in the sixth grade of a certain school in Navi Mumbai love their history lessons thanks to a novel teaching aid. It is not surprising given the fact that their study material includes comic books and they use their textbooks for reference to put things into perspective. Besides, students are encouraged to tap other sources of information as well. During history classes, students pore over comic strips of historical periods, enact characters of emperors and tyrants and have animated discussions on the subject. History has become fun.

In the class students are asked to read the comic strip aloud, after which they break up into groups of four,discuss what they have heard and write a summary. Each group leader reads his group’s summary aloud and the whole class jumps into discussion and debate, adding points, disagreeing and qualifying points of view. A sixth grade student says,” It’s a lot of fun because everyone gets a chance to express themselves and the summary takes everyone’s ideas into account.”

According to the school principal the comic strip format and visuals appeal to students. A historian feels that using comic in school is a great idea. Comics and acting help students understanding what characters in the story are actually thinking.

(adapted from The Times of India, New Delhi, October 2007)

Based on this news item, write a paragraph on what you think about this new method of teaching history.

Ans.  This new method of teaching sounds very promising because students understand better through visuals and popular culture such as comic reading. This method is a good alternative to the boring text book reading sessions. Since, these are activity based sessions, students participate with a lot of energy and enthusiasm.

This method blurs the line between playing and learning and therefore, is the most suitable method. Acting the roles of various characters, the students are made to apply their knowledge and think as the characters would have thought which forces them to be imaginative and creative

4. Find the chapters in your history book that correspond to the episodes and events described in this comic. Note how the information contained in a few chapters of history has been condensed to a few pages with the help of pictures and ‘speech bubbles’.

Ans. Do it yourself.

5. Create a comic of your own using this story. Once, the Sun and the Wind began to quarrel, each one saying that he was stronger than the other. At last they decided to test each other’s strength. A man with a cloak around his shoulders was passing by.

The wind boasted,” Using my strength I can make that man take off the cloak” . The Sun agreed. The wind blew hard. The man felt so cold that he clasped his cloak round his body as tightly as possible. Now, it was turn of the Sun which shone very hot indeed. The man felt so hot that he at once removed the cloak from his body. Seeing the man taking off the cloak, the wind conceded defeat.

Ans. Do it yourself.