1 Mark Questions
Question 1. How much representation do local governments provide for women in India?
How many seats are reserved for the women in the Indian local self-government?
Answer : One-Third
Question 2. By what term is now the person known who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women.
Define a feminist?
Answer : Feminist: A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for all human beings.
Question 3. At which level of government in India 1/3rd of seats are reserved for women?
Answer : Local Self Government bodies.
Question 4. In which constitutional institution have seats been reserved for women?
Answer : Panchayats and Municipalities
3 Marks Questions
Question 5. “Secularisam is not an ideology of some political parties or persons, but it is one of the foundations of our country.” Examine the statement.
Answer : (i) This idea constitutes one of the foundations of our country. Communalism should not be seen as a threat to some people in India. It threatens the very idea of India.
(ii) A secular constitution like ours is necessary but not sufficient to combat communalism. Communal prejudices and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life and religion-based mobilisation needs to be countered in the area of politics.
(iii) There is no official religion for the Indian state. The constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
(iv) The Constitution prohibits discrimination on ground of religion.
Question 6. How does religion influence the political set up in our country? Explain.
Answer : The religion in politics is not dangerous as it seems to us. Ethical values of each religion can play a major role in politics. As a member of any religious community, people should express their political needs. The political leaders regulate the practice of religion so that there should be no discrimination and oppression. If all religions are treated equally then these political acts are correct in any way.
Question 7. Why did the Muslim Ulama in India want to introduce religious reforms in Islam? Give any three reasons.
Answer : (i) Muslim clergy want to introduce religious reforms in Islam.
(ii) In north India, the Ulama were deeply anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynasties.
(iii) They feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion, change the Muslim personal laws.
(iv) To counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian and Urdu translations of holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts.
(v) The Deoband Seminary, founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands of fatwas.
(vi) Telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
Question 8. Describe the three factors which determine the outcome of the politics of social divisions.
Answer : Factors that decide the outcome of the politics of social divisions.
(i) The people’s perception of their identities: When this is singular, the accommodation of other identities becomes difficult.
(ii) Representation of a community by political leaders: While representing a community, if politicians raise demands that are constitutional, then, it is easier to accommodate those demands.
(iii) The government’s reaction: If the reasonable demands of a community are suppressed by the government, then it leads to social divisions, which in turns threaten the integrity of the country.
Question 9. Suggest any three measures to enhance the participation of women in politics?
Answer : (i) Women should be given proper education, so that they are aware of their rights and duties and participate actively in all political occasions.
(ii) Every woman should be self reliant, so that she enjoys a respectable position in the society and is confident about her meaningful contribution in politics as well.
(iii) It should be legally binding to have a fair proportion of woman in the elected bodies. That is why 1/3rd of seats in local government bodies in panchayats and in municipalities are now reserved for women.
Question 10. Suppose a politician seeks your vote on the religious ground. Why is his act considered against the norms of democracy? Explain.
Answer : His act is against the spirit of democracy as the said politician is not working as per the Constitution.
(i) It also exploits the social difference.
(ii) It may create social discard and may lead to social division.
(iii) It is also biased attitude and neglects the principle of equality.
Question 11. Describe three advantages of the political expression of caste differences.
Answer : Advantages of the political expression of caste differences are:
(i) It gives disadvantaged groups the opportunity to demand a share in power and decision making.
(ii) Many political parties take up the issue of ending caste discrimination.
(iii) Measures for uplifting the status of the backward castes will be undertaken.
Question 12. E x p l a i n the status o f women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies.
Answer : The status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies are as follows:
(i) Central legislature: Less than 10% of its total strength are women.
(ii) State legislatures: Less than 5% of their total strength are women.
(iii) Panchayati Raj: One-third of the seats are reserved for women.
Question 13. Suggest any two measures to check communalism in India.
Answer : (i) Communal prejudices and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life.
(ii) Religion based mobilisation needs to be countered in the arena of politics.
Question 14. How can communalism pose a great threat to Indian democracy?
How can religion be a source of danger to democratic politics? Explain your view points.
Answer : Communalism can pose a great threat to Indian democracy as:
(i) It leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.
(ii) Any attempt to bring followers of one religion together in a context other than religion is bound to suppress many voices within that community.
Question 15. “The Government of India gives holidays for the festivals of most of the religions.” Why is it so? Give your view point.
Answer : It is so because:
(i) India is a secular state, there is no official religion in our country.
(ii) The Constitution provides freedom to all to profess, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
(iii) The Constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion.
Question 16. Define Feminist Movements. Write their objectives.
Answer : Definition:
Agitations or movements demanding enhancement in the political and legal status of women and improving their education and career opportunities are called Feminist Movement. Main Objective: The main objective of Feminist Movement is to attain equality among men and women.
Question 17. What is communalism? How is communalism a hindrance in the functioning of our democracy? Explain.
Answer : Communalism: When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions, when the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest, we call it as communalism.
Communalism is a hindrance in the functioning of our democracy as:
(i) Communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either, one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nation.
(ii) Any attempt to bring all followers of one religion together in context other than religion is bound to suppress many voices within that community.
Question 18. How are religious differences expressed in politics?
Answer : The religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics, i.e.
(i) Gandhiji used to say that religion can never be separated from politics, what he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam, but moral values that inform all religions. He believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.
(ii) Human right groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. They have demanded that the government take special steps to protect religious minorities.
(iii) Women’s movement has agreed that family laws of all religions discriminate against women, so they have demanded that government should change these laws to make them more equitable.
Question 19. Describe the adverse effects of caste in politics in India.
Answer : Adverse effects of caste in politics in India:
(i) Political parties try to use caste to gain votes.
(ii) Promise to take care of interests and demands of different castes.
(iii) Leads to conflicts and tensions among various caste groups.
Question 20. Why are caste barriers breaking down in India? Explain with three reasons.
Answer : Caste barriers are breaking down in India due to the following reasons:
(i) With the economic development, large scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords in the villages, the old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down.
(ii) Due to socio-economic changes, i.e., now, most of the times, in urban areas it does not matter much who is walking along next to us on street or eating at the next table in a restaurant.
(iii) The Constitution of India prohibited any caste based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reserve the injustices of the caste system.
Question 21. Explain the impact of caste system on Indian democracy.
Answer : Impact o f caste system on Indian democracy:
(i) Expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand this share of power. In this sense, caste politics has helped people from Dalits and OBC caste to gain better access to decision-making.
(ii) Several political and non-political organizations have been demanding and agitating for an end to discrimination against particular castes, for mere dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.
(iii) Exclusive attention can produce negative results as well. It can divert attention from other pressing issues such as poverty, development and corruption. In some cases it leads to violence.
Question 22. “Caste has not still disappeared from contemporary India.” Write any three examples to justify the statement.
Answer : Caste has not disappeared from contemporary India. Some of the older aspects of caste which are persisting are as follows:
(i) Even now most people marry within their own caste or tribe.
(ii) Untouchability has not ended completely, despite constitutional prohibition. Effects of centuries of advantages and disadvantages continued to be felt today.
Question 23. How does caste get politicised? Give three points.
Answer : (i) Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within its neighbouring castes or sub-castes which were earlier excluded from it.
(ii) Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation.
(iii) New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political area like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.
5 Marks Questions
Question 24. How is gender division understood in Indian society? To what extent does political mobilization on gender basis help to improve women’s role in public life?
Answer : (i) In Indian society, gender division tends to be understood as natural and unchangeable. It is based on social expectations and stereotypes.
(ii) This attitude leads to sexual division of labour. Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children, whereas all the outside works are to be done by men.
(iii) The result of this division of labour is that though the women constitute almost half the population, their role in public life in minimal.
(iv) Po l it ica l expression and political mobilisation on this question helped to improve women’s role in public life. We now find women working as scientists, doctors, engineers, teachers, etc. Now with lot of efforts 33% seats are reserved for women in local government bodies. (Any three)
(Any other relevant point may be explained)
Question 25. Define communalism. Explain any three forms of Communalism in the Indian Politics.
Answer : (i) Communalism is a situation when beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions. When the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest.
(ii) Various forms of communalism in politics:
(a) The most common expression o f communalism is in every day beliefs.
(b) A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community.
(c) Political mobilisation on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeals and plan fear.
Question 26. “Gender division is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.” Support the statement.
Answer : (i) Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division based on social expectation and stereotypes.
(ii) Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children.
(iii) There is a sexual division of labour in most families where women do all the household chores and men work outside the home.
(iv) Majority of women do some paid work in addition to domestic labour both in rural and urban areas but work is not valued and does not get recognition.
(v) Women constitute half of the humanity, their role in public life, especially politics is minimal in most societies.
(vi) In our country, women still lag behind men as ours is still a male dominatedPatriarchal society. Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways. (Any three)
Question 27. What form does communalism take in politics?
Explain any three forms of communal politics, with examples.
Explain how communalism is being expressed in politics?
What does the term communalism mean? Explain any four forms which communalism takes in politics.
Answer : Communalism: It means attempts to promote religious ideas between groups of people which are identified as different communities.
Communalism can take various forms in politics:
(i) The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotype of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions. This is so common that we often fail to notice it, even when we believe in it.
(ii) A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. For those belonging to majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
(iii) Political mobilisation on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena.
(iv) Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre.
Question 28. The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. Do you agree? Explain.
Answer : No, I do not agree. The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. This is far from true because:
(i) No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.
(ii) No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community. When people say that a caste is a ’vote bank’ of one party, it usually means that a large proportion of the voters from the caste vote for the party.
(iii) Many political parties may put up candidates from the same caste (if that caste is believed to dominate the electorate in a particular constituency). Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidates from their caste.
(iv) The ruling party of the sitting MP or MLA frequently lose elections in our country. That could not have happened if all castes or communities were frozen in their political preferences.
Question 29. Examine the standard o f women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies.
Assess the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies.
Answer : The status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies is as follows:
(i) Central Legislature: Less than 10% of its total strength are women.
(ii) State Legislature: Less than 5% of its total strength are women.
(iii) Panchayati Raj: One-third of the seats are reserved for women.
(iv) India is among the bottom group of nations in the world, in this aspect.
(v) Women’s organizations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. But the bill to this effect has not been passed.
Question 30. Describe any five constitutional provisions that make India a secular.
What is the meaning of “Secularism”? How does the constitution make India a secular state? Explain.
The makers of the Indian Constitution chose the model of a secular state for India. Which constitutional provisions make India a secular state in the light of the above statement?
What is a secular state? How does the Constitution of India ensure that India remains a secular state? Explain.
How does the Constitution of India ensure secularism?
Answer : Secularism means no special status is given to any religion. It is just not an ideology of some parties or persons.
(i) There is no official religion for the Indian states, unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka or that of Islam is Pakistan.
(ii) The constitution provides freedom to all to protest, practise and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.
(iii) The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(iv) The Constitution allows state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.
Question 31. Explain the factors that have led to the weakening of the caste system in India.
Explain any five reasons for the declining caste system in India.
What factors have brought about a change in the Indian caste system in modern times? Explain.
Explain any five socio-economic changes responsible for breaking down the old notion of caste hierarchy in India.
Answer : Decline of the caste system in India:
(i) Efforts of social reformers like Phule, Gandhiji, Ambedkar against caste system have helped to promote a tasteless society.
(ii) Economic development has reduced the emphasis on caste.
(iii) Large scale urbanisation has diminished the awareness of caste, as people rub shoulders in buses, trains and offices.
(iv) Growth of literacy and education has helped to decrease the belief in caste.
(v) Occupational mobility is possible now and children are not compelled to continue the profession of the family or father.
(vi) Weakening of the position of landlords in the villages has led to decline of the rigid caste barriers in villages.
(vii) Constitutional provisions such as Right to Equality of all before law have helped to prevent discrimination legally.
(viii) Policy of reservation of seats in local self-government bodies and legislatures as well in educational institutes have helped to uplift the political, social and economic position of lower castes.
Question 32. “Caste has not still disappeared from contemporary India.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
“Caste has not still disappeared from contemporary India”. Do you agree with the statement? Justify your answer with suitable argument.
Answer : Yes, I agree with the statement.
(i) Most people marry within their own caste or tribe.
(ii) Untouchability has not ended despite provisions in the constitution.
(iii) Effects of centuries of advantages and disadvantages continue to be felt today.
(iv) A large mass of low caste people still do not have access to education.
(v) Caste is continued to be linked to economic status. (Or any other relevant argument)
Note: Marks will also be awarded, if somebody disagrees and gives suitable arguments.
Question 33. Describe the positive and negative aspects of relationship between caste and politics.
Describe three advantages and two disadvantages of the political expression of caste differences.
Analyse any five advantages and disadvantages of the political expression of caste differences?
Answer : Advantages:
(i) It gives disadvantaged groups the opportunity to demand a share in power and decision making.
(ii) Many‘ political parties take up the issue of ending caste discrimination.
(iii) Measures for uplifting the status of the backward/castes will be undertaken.
(i) Caste-based politics divert attention from main issues such as poverty, corruption, etc.
(ii) Caste-based politics lead to tensions, conflicts and violence.
Question 34. What was the Feminist Movement? Explain the political demands of the Feminist Movement in India.
Answer : Feminist Movement was a radical movement which demanded equality for women in personal and family life also apart from politics, society and educational field. The political demands of the Feminist Movements in India were:
(i) More women representatives in local government.
(ii) More political representatives for women by having elected women representatives.
(iii) Reserving at least one-third of the seats in Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for women.
Question 35. What is sexual division of labour? Mention the main demands of the worldwide women’s agitations.
Answer : Sexual division of labour means division of work on the basis of the gender difference and according to this concept all house work and responsibility of bringing up children is women’s work. Women all over the world have been demanding:
(i) Equal voting rights.
(ii) Enhancement of political and legal status of women.
(iii) Improvement of educational and career opportunities for women.
Question 36. Describe any five ways in which women in India are still discriminated and oppressed.
“In our country, women still lag much behind than men despite some improvements since independence.” Support the statement by giving five reasons.
Explain with five examples that women are still discriminated in India.
How ”Women i n India still face discrimination and oppression in various ways.” Support the statement with five examples.
What are the problems faced by Indian women which affect their social status? Explain any five.
Answer : In our country,women still lag much behind men despite some improvements since Independence. Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways:
(i) The literacy rate among women is only 54 percent as compared with 76 percent among men.
(ii) Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies. Girls are performing as well as boys in school. But they drop out because parents prefer to spend their resources for their boys’ education rather than spending equally on their sons and daughters.
(iii) The proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small. On an average, an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man everyday.
(iv) The Equal Remuneration Act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work. However in almost all areas of work, from sports and cinema, to factories and fields, women are paid less than men, even when both do exactly the same work.
(v) In many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she is born. Such sex selective abortion led to a decline in child sex ratio.
(vi) Woman face harassment, exploitation and violence on the domestic front.
Question 37. How can the relationship between politics and religion be beneficial and problematic at the same time? Explain.
It is inevitable to ignore the relationship between politics and religion. In what way does this relationship impact modern day politics? Explain.
Answer : Beneficial:
(i) Influence of religion can make politics value based.
(ii) Religious communities can politically express their needs and interests.
(iii) Political authorities can monitor and control religious discrimination and oppression.
(i) Religion can become the base for the development of nationalist sentiments which can lead to conflicts.
(ii) Political parties will try to make political gains by pitting one group against the other.
(iii) State power may be used to establish the domination of one religious group over another.
Question 38. How can caste take different forms in politics? Explain with examples.
Analyse the role of caste in Indian politics.
Answer : Influence of caste on politics:
(i) While choosing candidates for election, political parties consider the caste composition of the voters to win support.
(ii) When the government is formed, political parties take care that representative from different castes find place in the government.
(iii) Political parties make appeal to the caste sentiments to win votes.
(iv) Some political parties are known to favour some particular caste.
(v) Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person one-vote have compelled the political leaders to bring caste sentiments into politics to muster support.
Question 39. Assess the influences of politics on caste system.
Answer : Influence of politics on Caste:
(i) Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it sub-castes.
(ii) Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other caste or communities.
(iii) New kinds of caste groups have entered politics like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ castes.
(iv) Politics in caste has allowed many disadvantaged caste groups to demand their share of power. Caste politics has helped the Dalits and OBCs to gain better access to decision-making.