1 Mark Questions
Question 1. Name the crops for which India is the largest producer in the world.
Answer : Fruits and vegetables, oilseeds and pulses
Question 2. By which name is specialized cultivation of fruits and vegetables known?
Answer : Horticulture.
Question 3. Describe ‘Jhumming cultivation’ in one sentence.
Answer : ‘Slash and burn’ cultivation in NorthEastern states of India.
Question 4. Which is the leading coffee producer state in India?
Answer : Karnataka.
Question 5. By which other name is ‘slash and burn’ agriculture known?
Answer : Primitive subsistence farming/jhumming
Question 6. In which country the ‘slash and burn’ agriculture is known as ‘Roca’?
Answer : Brazil.
Question 7. Hoe, dao, digging sticks are associated with which type of farming?
Answer : Primitive subsistence farming.
Question 8. Which crop is grown with the onset monsoons and are harvested in the month of September and October?
Answer : Kharif.
Question 9. Which crop is the major crop of rabi?
Answer : Wheat.
Question 10. Name some rabi crops.
Answer : Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
Question 11. Name the two important wheat growing zones in India.
Answer : The Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan.
Question 12. In which system of agriculture, a single crop is grown on a large area?
Answer : Plantation agriculture.
Question 13. Name some plantation crops.
Answer : Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane and banana.
Question 14. Which type of farming is intensive subsistence farming?
Answer : Labour intensive farming.
Question 15. Which two areas of India produce oranges mainly?
Answer : Nagpur in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
Question 16. Which country is the first largest producer of rice?
Question 17. India is the largest producer as well as consumer of which agricultural product in the world?
Answer : Pulses.
Question 18. Which crop is used both as food and fodder?
Answer : Maize.
Question 19. Which crop is known as golden fibre?
Answer : Jute.
Question 20. Which state is the largest producer of ragi?
Answer : Karnataka.
Question 21. In which type of soil does maize grow well?
Answer : Old alluvial.
3 Marks Questions
Question 22. “Dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for local and national development”. Analyse the statement.
Answer : (i) The pace o f development o f country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Therefore efficient means o f transport are pre-requisite for national development.
(ii) Today, the world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport system.
(iii) The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of our economy with the help of dense and efficient network of transport in the country. It has enriched our life and added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.
Question 23. Which are the two main cropping seasons in India? Mention their growing and harvesting periods.
Answer : The two main cropping seasons are Rabi and Kharif:
(i) Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June.
(ii) Kharif crops are sown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and harvested in September-October. .
Question 24. What are the growing conditions required for the main staple food crop of India? Mention the main growing regions.
Answer : (i) Growing conditions required for rice:
(a) High temperature (above 25°C). It is a Kharif crop.
(b) High humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
(ii) Main growing regions : Northern plains, northeastern India, Coastal areas, deltaic plains and river valleys.
Question 25. Describe the institutional and technical changes introduced in the field o f agriculture in India in the recent years.
Describe any three technological and institutional reforms made in the field of agriculture in India.
What were the attributes of the comprehensive land development programme initiated in India in the decade 1980 and 1990.
Answer : (i) Land reforms : collectivization, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari.
(ii) Agricultural reforms : Green revolution and White revolution.
(iii) Land development programmes: Provision for crop in surance against drought, flood, cyclone etc., establishment of Grameen banks, Cooperative societies and banks for providing loans.
(iv) Issuing of Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, etc.
(v) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on radio and TV.
Question 26. Explain any two geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses. Name any two important pulses producing states.
Why the pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops? Name any two major pulse producing states?
Answer : Pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops because:
(i) Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
(ii) Being leguminous crops, all these crops help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
(iii) Major pulse producing states are: Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
Question 27. Give an account of oilseeds in India. State the importance of groundnut and name the states where it is grown.
Describe the uses of oilseeds? Which state is the largest producer of groundnut?
Answer : Importance : (i) Are edible and used as cooking medium.
(ii) Used as raw material in production of soap, cosmetics and ointment.
(iii) India-largest producer.
(i) Kharif crop.
(ii) Accoun ts half o f the total oilseed production.
(iii) State : Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
5 Marks Questions
Question 28. “The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s”. Support this statement with examples.
Compare intensive subsistence farming with that of commercial farming practiced in India.
Answer : (i) In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms.
(ii) Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease establishment of Grameen banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
(iii) Kissan Credit Card (KCC), personal accident insurance scheme are some other schemes introduced by the government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
(iv) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
(v) The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
Intensive Subsistence Farming :
- This type of farming is practised in areas of high population pressure on land.
- It is labour-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
- Though the ‘right of inheritance leading to the division of land among successive generation has rendered land-holding size. Uneconomical the farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of livelihood.
- In this type of farming crops are grown for family consumption.
- Rice, wheat, maize, are mainly grown with the help of traditional tools.
Commercial Farming :
- In this type of farming single crop is grown on a large area.
- The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs e.g. HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
- In commercial farming plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry. It covers large tracts of land using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers.
- Crops are mainly grown for the market or used in industry as raw material.
- Tea, coffee, sugarcane, rubber, banana etc. are grown with the help of modern inputs.
Question 29. What are millets? Give brief description of the climatic conditions and producing states of the millets grown in India.
Answer : Millets are coarse grains but have high nutritional value e.g., ragi-rich in iron, calcium.
(i) Jowar-Rain fed crops mostly grown in moist area. States producing-Maharashtra, Karnataka and MP.
(ii) Bajra-grown well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. States producingRajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana and UP.
(iii) Ragi-grown well in dry region on red, black, sandy and loamy soils. States producing–Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim.
Question 30. Which crop is known as the ‘golden fibre’? Explain any two geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of this crop. Mention its any four uses.
Answer : (i) Jute is called the golden fibre.
(ii) Geographical conditions :
(a) Grows well in drained fertile soil of the flood plains where the soil is renewed every year.
(b) High temperature is required during the time of growth.
Uses : Can be used to manufacture gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts.
Question 31. Name any four oilseeds produced in India. Explain the importance of oil seeds in our day-to-day life.
Answer : (i) Groundnut (ii) Mustard (iii) Coconut (iv) Sesamun (v) Soyabean, sunflower; etc.
Importance of oilseeds : Most of these are edible in the form of oil. Used as raw material for manufacturing paints, varnishes, soaps, perfumes etc, oil cake is used as cattle feed. Oil cake is also used as a fertiliser.
Question 32. Mention any two geographical conditions required for the growth of maize crop in India. Describe any three factors which have contributed to increase in maize production.
Answer : (i) Geographical conditions required for the growth of maize crop in India:
(a) I t is a kharif crop which requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C.
(b) It grows well in alluvial soil.
(ii) Use of modern inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing production of maize.
Question 33. Explain any three geographical conditions required for the growth of rice in India. How is it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall? Explain with examples.
Answer : (i) Three geographical conditions for the growth of rice:
(a) It requires high temperature, (above 25°C).
(b) Annual rainfall above 100 cm.
(c) High humidity (ii) It is possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall with the help of irrigation in Punjab and Haryana.
Question 34. Why has the agriculture sector in India got a major setback in spite of increase in the GDP growth rate?
Answer : (i) More and more land is used for construction of factories, warehouses and shelters which reduced the land under cultivation.
(ii) Soil gets degraded by the use of pesticides, fertilizers, over irrigation, etc., which leads to water logging and salinity.
(iii) Today Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition.
(iv) Our government is reducing the public investment in agriculture, subsidy on fertilizers have decreased.
(v) Reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.
Question 35. What are the climatic conditions required for the growth of rice?
Answer : Climatic conditions required for the growth of rice:
(i) It is a Kharif crop which requires high temperature (above 25°C).
(ii) High humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
(iii) In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
(iv) It is grown in the plains of north and north-easten India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
(v) Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab and Haryana.
Question 36. Suggest any five measures to enhance the agricultural production in India.
Explain any five institutional and technical reforms brought by the government to improve the condition o f Indian Agriculture.
Describe any five steps taken by the government of India to increase the productivity of agriculture in India.
Answer : (i) Land reforms: Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari.
(ii) Agricultural reforms: Green revolution and White revolution.
(iii) Land development programmes: Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, etc, establishment of Grameen banks, Cooperative societies and banks for providing loans.
(iv) Issuing of Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, etc.
(v) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on radio and TV.
(vi) Government announces Minimum Support Price (MSP) and remunerative and procurement prices to check exploitation.
(vii) The government provides HYV seeds and fertilisers.
(viii) Government provides technical assistance and training for farmers.
(ix) Soil testing facilities, cold storage and transportation facilities are provided by government for farmers.
Question 37. Define plantation agriculture. Explain any four characteristics of plantation agriculture.
Answer : Plantation Agriculture : It is a type of commercial farming practised in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It was introduced by the British in India.
(i) A single crop is grown over large area.
(ii) It is capital intensive and done with migrant labour.
(iii) All produce is used as raw material in industries such as tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.
(iv) Plantation has interface of agriculture and industry both.
Question 38. “Wheat and rice farming in India are fairly different from each other”. Support the statement with five suitable examples.
Wheat and rice farming in India are fairly different from each other. Explain.
Answer : Basis of difference :
Question 39. Distinguish between primitive subsistence farming and commercial farming by stating five points of distinction.
Question 40. Describe any four geographical conditions required for the growth of tea. Mention the two major tea producing states of South India.
Name the important beverage crop introduced by the British in India. Explain the geographical conditions needed for its cultivation. Write any two important states where it is grown.
In which agricultural production, India is the leading producer as well as exporter in world? Describe the geographical requirements for its growth and development.
What are the soil type, climatic conditions and rainfall conditions required for the cultivation of tea? Write two states of India where tea grows.
Answer : Tea : Grows well in tropical and subtropical climates.
Soil type : Deep and fertile, well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matters.
Climate : Warm and moist, frost-free climate throughout the year.
Rainfall : Frequent showers throughout the year.
Two states : Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, Meghalaya and Tripura. (Any two)
Question 41. Describe four geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane. Name two major sugarcane producing states of North India.
What geographical conditions are required for the cultivation of sugarcane? Name two largest producing states of sugarcane.
Answer : Geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane in India:
(i) It is a tropical as well as sub-tropical crop so it requires a hot and humid climate with a temperature of 24°C to 27°C.
(ii) It requires an annual rainfall between 75 to 100 cm. (iii) It can be grown on a variety of soils. (iv) Major sugarcane producing states of North India are: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
Question 42. Which are the two major cotton producing states of North India? Describe four geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton.
Describe the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton.
Answer : Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the two major cotton producing states of North India. Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton:
(i) It grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
(ii) It requires high temperature.
(iii) It requires light rainfall or irrigation.
(iv) It requires 21 frost free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
Question 43. Explain Rubber cultivation in India under the following heads:
(i) Importance (ii) Geographical conditions (iii) Producing states.
Answer : (i) Importance : Many industries depend upon rubber as their raw material especially transport industry.
(ii) Geographical conditions : (a) It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions it is also grown in tropical and sub tropical areas.
(b) It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature above 25°C.
(iii) Rubber producing states are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.
Question 44. Explain any four features of primitive subsistence agriculture in India.
Answer : Features o f primitive subsistence agriculture in India are:
(i) It is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools.
(ii) Too ls which are used are basically traditional tools such as hoe, dao and digging stick.
(iii) This type of agriculture totally depends upon monsoon. (iv) When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift to another plot of land.
Question 45. What is intensive subsistence farming? Write three features of intensive farming.
Answer : (i) Intensive subsistence farming is practised in areas of high population pressure on land. In this type of farming, the agricultural production is increased by using high doses of biochemical inputs and better agricultural inputs.
(ii) Features of intensive farming:
(a) High yielding variety (HYV) seeds and modern chemical inputs and irrigation are used to increase the production.
(b) The per hectare yield is very high.
(c) More than one crop is cultivated during a year.
Question 46. Compare the geographical conditions required for the production of cotton and jute.
Question 47. Why is agriculture called the mainstay of Indian economy? OR What is the importance of agriculture in Indian economy?
Answer : (i) Agriculture is the mainstay of Indian economy because about 67% o f our population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture.
(ii) It provides raw materials to the industries.
(iii) India earns foreign exchange by exporting agricultural products.
(iv) It contributes about 29% to the gross domestic product.
(v) It provides food to over 1250 million population.
Question 48. Why has Indian agriculture started a decline in the trend of food production? How can we overcome this problem?
Answer : Indian agriculture started a decline in the trend of food production because:
(i) More and more land is used for construction of factories, warehouses and shelters have reduced the land under cultivation.
(ii) Soil gets degraded by the use of pesticides, fertilizers, over-irrigation, etc. which leads to water logging and salinity.
Remedial Measures :
(i) Use of agricultural techniques which are environmentally sustainable.
(ii) Use of biotechnology in modifying different crops and increase the yield per hectare. It reduces dependence on insecticides and also require less water.